We have first demonstrated that Debreu’s view regarding the publication of The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944 as the birth of modern mathematical economics is not convincing. In this paper, we have proposed the hypothesis that the coordinated research programs in the 1930’s, initiated by the Econometric Society and the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics with the objective of unifying economic theory, mathematics and statistics, can be regarded as the beginning of modern mathematical economics as well as econometrics. We have argued that this unification has failed to satisfactorily bridge the gap between mathematical economics and the real world economic issues. However, contrary to Marshall's view that mathematics is not an engine of inquiry in economics but is only a shorthand language, we have established in this paper that the application of mathematics in modern mathematical economics can, under certain conditions, produce economic results of value.
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In developing countries, weak institutional quality can increase the probability of applying discretionary policies and can have a great impact on their double-digit inflation. Surico (2008) calculated inflation bias, but he considered just monetary policy and he did not pay attention to the institutions. Therefore, we design a model which considers the discretion in monetary and fiscal policies and the effect of the institutional quality. Then we calculate the inflation bias resulting from time inconsistency of monetary and fiscal policies by solving our model.
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According to traditional trade theories, foreign trade affects economic growth via several channels such as knowledge and technology spillover, improvement of resources allocation, increasing productivity and competitiveness. Within the framework of new trade theories, the effect of foreign trade on economic growth is ambiguous, and this effect depends on the combination of the different effects specially the market structure. Regarding to the theoretical ambiguity and lack of the empirical studies on the topic, the present paper investigates the relationship between intra-industry trade and economic growth by using the Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR) method for selected developed and developing countries. during 2001-2014. The results of the model estimation showed that this relationship is positive for the developed countries, while interestingly we found the negative relationship for the developing countries. Despite the latter result, there are still high potentials for the developing countries to exploit their capability in the new trade to promote their economic growth if the new trade determinants will be considered in their policy making.
Companies incur significant costs from the financial distress. Predicting financial distress will have an important role in preventing bankruptcy. The aim of the present study is to predict the financial distress costs using the Leland and Toft models, during 1996 and 1998. This study examines data relating to 49 companies listed in the Tehran stock exchange collected over ten years from 2005 to 2014. Leland and Toft model (1996) considers the financial distress costs and benefits from the tax shield in general. However, Leland and Toft model (1998) considers the financial distress costs and benefits from the tax shield in detail by using parameter. According to the research findings, the companies working in automotive industry are bankrupt, but the companies working in food and beverage, pharmaceutical, base metals and cement industries have a good distance from financial default. The results help to improve the decision-making process and to avoid the financial distress.
The Mediating Role of Corporate Image on the Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study
This study attempted to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility on firm performance. It also tried to identify the mediating role of corporate image on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and firm performance. This research collected data on latent constructs through a questionnaire administered survey of managers across a spectrum of industries in Bangladesh. The proposed model has been empirically tested by using SmartPls 2.0 software. Empirical results, based on a sample of 125 firms, suggest that corporate social responsibility can improve corporate image by establishing good controls and monitoring and thereby improve overall firm performance. The results of this study also suggest that executives should not dismiss corporate social responsibility and also need to take into account the mediating role of corporate image. A more comprehensive model can be developed considering some other context specific variables. This study also highlights the implications of the model.
Identifying Factors affecting the Phenomenon of Organizational loafing; Using Structural Equation Modeling & Delphi Techniques
Organizational loafing is the phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in an organizational group than when they work alone.This phenomenon is a serious problem in today's organizations.The research seeks to explain factors affecting the phenomenon of organizational loafing. First, the elites’ opinion through Delphi technique about the indicators influencing the organizational loafing including environment, human, technology, aims and structure was collected. After designing the model, the fitting as well as editing questionnaire were measured. This research which is both quantitative and qualitative designed the final model. 180 employees of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology were randomly selected as the sample of study. Statistical analysis of research data was performed with the help of structural equation. In so doing, the questionnaire, whose validity and reliability with Cronbach's alpha equal to 834% were confirmed, was utilized to collect data. And after confirmation of normal distribution of data with the help of Smart PLS software and confirmatory factor analysis, eventually proposed model with 5 criteria and 25 indicators was approved. The results showed that the most influential factors affecting organization loafing is organization environment, followed by other indexes including aims, structure, and human factors and technology. So the managers were recommended to turn to the most important indicators affecting organizational loafing such as satisfaction, commitment and organizational culture so as to achieve efficient organizational loafing management.
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The vast bodies of studies in the word and recently in Iran have attempted to investigate the manufacturing industry structure (indicating the level of industries in terms of monopoly or competitiveness) and its trend using the various indices and methods. Despite the importance of Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient in indicating the market structure, these methods, capabilities have been neglected in determining the structure of manufacture industries in Iran by the way. Therefore, this paper attempts to indicate the structure of main manufacturing industries in Iran (including manufacture of food and beverages, manufacture of textile and production of none-metallic minerals industry) using the mentioned methods. The results of this study indicate that in the intended three years and with respect to the employment, output amounts and value added indices, these industries have concentration ratio more than 0.6. This means that they enjoy from none competitive structure. Therefore and in terms of policy, the results indicate the necessity of more consideration of policies that focus on elimination of monopoly and encourage the more competitiveness in the industrial sector.