International Journal of Business and Development Studies

International Journal of Business and Development Studies

International Journal of Business and Development Studies Vol. 7, No. 1, (2015) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Control Theory and Economic Policy Optimization: The Origin, Achievements and the Fading Optimism from a Historical Standpoint(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Optimal Control Theory Stochastic Control Adaptive Control Economic Applications

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تعداد بازدید : 518 تعداد دانلود : 95
Economists were interested in economic stabilization policies as early as the 1930’s but the formal applications of stability theory from the classical control theory to economic analysis appeared in the early 1950’s when a number of control engineers actively collaborated with economists on economic stability and feedback mechanisms. The theory of optimal control resulting from the contributions of mathematicians Lev Semenovich Pontryagin and Richard Ernest Bellman in the late 1950’s was first applied successfully to models of economic growth in the 1960’s by the economists who were interested in discovering the optimality properties of economic growth trajectories. It is shown that the collaborations of control engineers with econometricians in the 1970’s on the computation of optimal state and control trajectories in econometric models were the earliest attempts to demonstrate the possibility of applying deterministic, stochastic and adaptive optimal control to the numerical solution of optimal economic policies. We have explained why the collaborations of control engineers with econometricians on formulating and computing optimum system design in macroeconomic optimal planning models failed and why the economic applications of optimal control theory have proved to be more productive in the analysis of optimality conditions in mathematical economics and not in the computation of optimal trajectories in econometric models.

The Comparison among ARIMA and hybrid ARIMA-GARCH Models in Forecasting the Exchange Rate of Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ARIMA Exchange Rate Forecasting Performance GARCH Family Models Volatility Modeling

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی اقتصاد اقتصاد بین الملل مالیه بین الملل بازار ارز
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی اقتصاد روش های ریاضی و کمی مدل سازی اقتصادسنجی ارزیابی مدل
تعداد بازدید : 791 تعداد دانلود : 559
This paper attempts to compare the forecasting performance of the ARIMA model and hybrid ARMA-GARCH Models by using daily data of the Iran’s exchange rate against the U.S. Dollar (IRR/USD) for the period of 20 March 2014 to 20 June 2015. The period of 20 March 2014 to 19 April 2015 was used to build the model while remaining data were used to do out of sample forecasting and check the forecasting ability of the model. All the data were collected from central bank of Iran. First of all, the stationary of the exchange rate series is examined using unit root test which showed the series as non stationary. To make the exchange rate series stationary, the exchange rates are transformed to exchange rate returns. By using Box-Jenkins method, the appropriate ARIMA model was obtained and for capturing volatilities of returns series, some hybrid models such as: ARIMA-GARCH, ARIMA-IGARCH, ARIMA-GJR and ARIMA-EGARCH have been estimated. The results indicate that in terms of the lowest RMSE, MAE and TIC criteria, the best model is ARIMA((7,2),(12)) –EGARCH(2,1). This model captures the volatility and leverage effect in the exchange rate returns and its forecasting performance is better than others.

The Sensitivity of Central Bank Independence Measurements to Inflation in Iran: A New Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ARDL Iran Sensitivity Analysis Central Bank Independence

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تعداد بازدید : 629 تعداد دانلود : 295
The purpose of this study is finding the sensitivity of central bank independence measurements on its impact on inflation in Iran. To this aim different measurements of the central bank independence were calculated using the indices of Grilli et al. (1991), Cukierman et al. (1992), Mathew (2006) and Dumiter (2009) for the period 1961-2012 . Although results of correlation between CBI index and inflation shows that there is a negative correlation between all CBI index and inflation, but the estimated results using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) show except for the index of Grilli et al. (1991) other indices have similar short run and long run significant negative effect on the inflation in Iran. So the CBI have the sensitivity to definition. Also, results of estimation shows that there isn’t any significant differences between the impact of Cukierman et al. (1992), Mathew (2006) and Dumiter (2009) index on the inflation. So this indices can be used interchangeably.

Ranking Stock Exchange Companies With a Combined Approach Based on FAHP-FTOPSIS Financial Ratios and Comparing Them With Tehran Stock Exchange Rankings(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Tehran Stock Exchange Ranking Financial Ratios AHP–TOPSIS 50 Superior Companies

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تعداد بازدید : 363 تعداد دانلود : 431
Ranking of companies listed on the exchange represent their status and considered a criterion for investment. Also, it increases market's competition, development and efficiency. In this study, the fifty superior companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange were ranked based on financial ratios (liquidity, operational, leverage and profitability) using FAHP- FTOPSIS hybrid approach during the years 2013 . Initially, capital markets authorities and universities' financial masters perspectives about effect of ratios were collected by questionnaire and weighting with FAHP technique and then companies were ranked based on ratios using the FTOPSIS technique. The results indicate that there is a weak correlation between two groups of ranking. In fact, results show that the stock exchange’s selected top companies necessarily do not have higher rankings in terms of financial ratios and the firms’ financial Statements are weak approximation for firms’ superiority likelihood in the stock exchange.

The Co-movement between Output and Prices: Evidence from Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: GARCH Iran Output Dynamic Conditional Correlation Prices

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی اقتصاد اقتصاد کلان و اقتصاد پولی قیمت ها،نوسانات تجاری،دورهای تجاری سطح عمومی قیمت ها،تورم
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی اقتصاد اقتصاد کلان و اقتصاد پولی مصرف،پس انداز،تولید،اشتغال و سرمایه گذاری تولید
تعداد بازدید : 228 تعداد دانلود : 244
This paper employs a multivariate dynamic conditional correlation GARCH model, which is developed by Engle (2001, 2002), to detect the timing and nature of changes in the comovement between Iranian output and prices for the periods after Iran–Iraq war , known as imposed war . The results showed that there is a weak correlation between output and prices after imposed war and varies periodically and changes from positive to negative after imposed war and changes from negative to positive again after 2009 crisis in Iran. We conclude that there is a contagion effect of the price index on output. The predominantly negative output-price co-movement suggests that the overall price level was typically countercyclical rather than procyclical. These findings imply the presence of aggregate supply versus aggregate demand shocks and sticky prices. Supply shocks are the main causes of stagflation. To solve the problem of stagflation, governments must adopt policies to push out the aggregate supply curve

The Effect of Corruption on Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis Based on Panel Data(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Shadow Economy Corruption Static Panel Regression Models Dynamic Panel Regression Models

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تعداد بازدید : 261 تعداد دانلود : 397
Quite often shadow economy (SE) and corruption are seen as ""twins"", which need each other or fight against each other and theoretically can be either complements or substitutes. Therefore, the relationship between SE and corruption has been a controversial and polemical issue and in the spotlight of a remarkable collection of economists and social researchers. The main objective of this study can be served as an investigation and identification of the effect of corruption on SE and its dependence on the level of development. To test our two hypothesis , the econometric panel-data approach is employed for the period of 1999 to 2007 in two blocks of 25 countries containing high-developed and developing countries (including I.R.IRAN) under deferent indexes for corruption in the context of Static and Dynamic panel regression models(by using of 2SLS and GMM methods of estimation). The results of estimations specially based on dynamic panel models indicate that our two hypotheses cannot be rejected and corruption has a significant effect on SE depending on the level of development. Despite of these findings, our results show that there is no robust relationship between corruption and the size of the SE in terms of the sign and the nature of these effects. In other words, the relationship will vary according to different corruption indexes and estimation methods. Other findings have been described in the terminal sector of paper.

Economic Valuation of Cultural Goods (Case Study: Isfahan City of Arts)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Economic Evaluation WTP Choice Experiment method (CE) Isfahan City of Arts

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تعداد بازدید : 840 تعداد دانلود : 304
In today’s world, no one can deny the expansion of economic influence in the various aspects of social life and economization of immaterial issues of social life is becoming more obvious every day. The valuation of cultural goods, as one of the most important economic aspects related to arts and culture, is chosen to be considered in this study. The necessity of considering the economic valuation of the arts and culture comes from the competition between different public and merit goods which seek government. Considering this, the present study is conducted in order to determine the economic value of “Isfahan City of Arts” as a cultural center which is planned to be built in Isfahan as the largest center of supplying, educating and presenting cultural and artistic events in the whole country. In order to make this happen, we need to know how people value different parts and activities of this complex. Regarding different strength and week points of various economic valuation techniques, the Choice Experiment method (CE), as one the most efficient methodologies in estimating different aspects of nonmarket goods, has been used in this study for measuring WTP estimates. The results indicate that among eleven activities (aspects) of the complex, all activities, except for galleries, had positive and significant effects on choosing designed scenarios, and among the listed activities, Concert Hall, Cineplex and Fashion Hall had, relatively, the highest willingness to payment.


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