مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Corruption "


۱.

The Effect of Corruption on Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis Based on Panel Data

کلید واژه ها: Shadow Economy Corruption Static Panel Regression Models Dynamic Panel Regression Models

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۲
Quite often shadow economy (SE) and corruption are seen as ""twins"", which need each other or fight against each other and theoretically can be either complements or substitutes. Therefore, the relationship between SE and corruption has been a controversial and polemical issue and in the spotlight of a remarkable collection of economists and social researchers. The main objective of this study can be served as an investigation and identification of the effect of corruption on SE and its dependence on the level of development. To test our two hypothesis , the econometric panel-data approach is employed for the period of 1999 to 2007 in two blocks of 25 countries containing high-developed and developing countries (including I.R.IRAN) under deferent indexes for corruption in the context of Static and Dynamic panel regression models(by using of 2SLS and GMM methods of estimation). The results of estimations specially based on dynamic panel models indicate that our two hypotheses cannot be rejected and corruption has a significant effect on SE depending on the level of development. Despite of these findings, our results show that there is no robust relationship between corruption and the size of the SE in terms of the sign and the nature of these effects. In other words, the relationship will vary according to different corruption indexes and estimation methods. Other findings have been described in the terminal sector of paper.
۲.

Social Media and Politics: Examining Indonesians’ Political Knowledge on Facebook

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Corruption Facebook social media political discussion political knowledge Indonesia

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی علوم اجتماعی ارتباطات ارتباطات سیاسی، بین الملل و توسعه
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی علوم اجتماعی ارتباطات مطالعات فضای مجازی، جهانی شدن و تکنولوژی های نوین ارتباطاتی مطالعات فضای مجازی
تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۶
The Internet and social media have played a significant role in contemporary political sphere of Indonesia. In particular, they have been widely used for political activism and discussion; but whether the discussions are constructive is another issue. Constructive political discussion requires several preconditions; one of the most important requirements is rational reasoning. Citizens must be equipped with some degree of political knowledge and competency to provide reasonable arguments and justifications in discussions. The primary objective of this paper is to examine the level of political knowledge of Indonesian Facebookers regarding corruption which is currently a serious issue in Indonesia. An online survey was conducted among the most active users of an anti-corruption Facebook group of Indonesians. The results of the study generally suggested that the participants were well informed about the current affairs of their society and showed a high level of political knowledge in terms of the Corruption Eradication Commission and also the incumbent politicians; however, the results indicated a low level of knowledge regarding laws and regulations surrounding corruption as well as the issues related to the former politicians.
۳.

Impact of Economic Transparency on Economic Growth in the Middle East countries

تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
Economic transparency will lead to economic stability and corruption decline. Thus the shortage of transparency mechanisms, laws and procedures will raise corruption and make it tough to cutout corruption. Also, loss of transparency in financial and economic system creates to instability, inappropriate allocation of resources, the boom of injustice and inequality and as a result paves the way for all sorts of financial and economic corruption and misuse. The greater transparency economic growth, the lower the cost of entry into economics and accordingly with rising economic competitiveness, the condition for development and economic growth will be advanced. So, considering the vital role of transparency in economics, this study first explores transparency and corruption then with the panel data, looks at the relation between economic transparency and economic growth in Middle East countries over the last 13 years (2003-2015). In other words, this paper aims to show how the transparency variable influences economic growth. The specific purpose is to find out whether there is a positive or negative connection between transparency and economic advancement in the countries under investigation. The results of the research show that the relation between transparency and economic growth in the Middle East countries is direct and significant. Also the relation between gross capital formation and labor force participation is direct and significant with the economic growth of these countries.
۴.

Political Stability, Corruption, Democracy and Terrorism In the Middle East and North Africa

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۹
Terrorism has been considered as a challenge with serious effect in the world as a result of instability, corruption and lack of democracy in most countries. Confronting this phenomenon requires recognizing its roots to find possible solutions. This study aims to examine the effect of some actual factors which causes the terrorism in short and long run. To this end, investigation has been conducted using statistical and regression methods using the data obtained from the 17 MENA countries. Findings indicate that in the long run, political stability and corruption controlling have a negative effect on the number of terrorist attacks, but democracy has no significant effect on terrorism. Morover, in the short term, there is also an inverse relationship between the number of terrorist attacks with political stability and corruption controlling, but unfortunately, democracy has a positive and significant effect on the number of terrorist attacks in the selected countries.
۵.

Institutional Analysis of Corruption Configurations in South-West Asian Countries: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۷
Considering corruption as one of the chronic harms of the administrative system, and the social factor affecting economic growth, the present study sought to explain, for the first time, the differences in the perceived levels of corruption among 16 Southwest Asian countries, relying on the sociological “new institutionalism” theory in analyzing organizations, describing causal mechanisms and their mutual impact, and creating corruptive contexts. The fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Method (fsQCA) and the secondary data were used to find the causal configurations leading to corruption in these cases. The experimental judgment led to two causal configurations showing that some institutional requirements of the institutional environment, in contrast to the requirements of the technical environment, exacerbated the gap between formal and informal structures. Conflicts lead to the formation of informal norms and networks that, over time, provide shared mental patterns for actors in executing current actions and confronting ambiguity and uncertainty; and on the basis of contextual rationality, they are interpreted as an appropriate way of acting. This reduces the costs of corruption and increases the opportunity for abuse by diminishing supervision and control and strengthening informal networks.
۶.

Designing and Explaining the Model of Improvement of Integrity in the Customs of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Based on Grounded Theory Method)

تعداد بازدید : ۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱
The World Customs Organization has issued a number of statements about the provision of strategies to improve the integrity of the world's customs, the most important of which is the "Revised Arusha Declaration". Since the adopters of Arusha Declaration emphasized that the components mentioned in this declaration should be considered according to the conditions of each country and its degree of economic development, this study sought to provide a model for improving the integrity of the Islamic Republic of Iran Customs on the basis of the Arusha Declaration.In order to achieve this model, the Grounded Theory method was used, and the researcher has obtained the required data from the relevant documents (60 items including book, article, research, dissertation) as well as semi-structured interviews from the experts of executive of the customs that have been up to the saturated theoretical (12 people) who have been selected according to the concept of knowledge and purposefully, and after coding and identifying the categories, the model has been presented. Additionally, for model validation, researcher's sensitivity criteria, methodology coherence, sample fit, repetition of a finding, and use of informed feedback were used. The results show that by focusing on three categories of transparency, accountability and regulatory framework and improving the automation, human resource management, relationship with private sector, audit and investigation, organizational risk management, employee efficiency, transparency in codes of conduct, leadership commitment, and promotion of customs procedures can achieve organizational efficiency and improvement of integrity.