علی محمد فضیلت فر

علی محمد فضیلت فر

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۲۱ مورد.
۱.

Motivation in Simultaneous Multiple Foreign Language Learning in Burundi: A Complex Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: motivation Complex Dynamic Systems Theory Changes in motivation motivational factors Multilingualism

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۸
Drawing on qualitative research, this study explored, from a complex dynamic systems theory perspective, the motivation of Burundi junior high school students simultaneously learning L2 French, L3s English and Kiswahili. It aimed to fill the gap in research on (1) changes in motivational dynamics and factors responsible for any fluctuations in the levels of motivation over time and (2) complex interactions between different learner variables among multiple language learners. Twelve school pupils who were all Kirundi native speakers participated in this study. Retrospective interviews were used to collect data relating to the students’ multilingual learning experiences over the period of their formal education. The findings indicated that the intensity of learning each target language fluctuated over time, with English generally enjoying the highest increase and Kiswahili the lowest and that different factors were responsible for such dynamic changes. Besides, complex interactions between the students’ L1, L2, and L3s linguistic knowledge and their foreign language learning motivations were revealed. These results indeed highlight the complex and dynamic nature of motivation in learning multiple languages. In light of these findings, practical implications are discussed based on the Burundi educational context.
۲.

Junior Secondary School Students’ Motivation for Learning Multiple Foreign Languages in Burundi: A Cross-sectional Study

کلید واژه ها: L2 motivation L2 motivational self - system school grade simultaneous multiple language learning

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۲ تعداد دانلود : ۵۶
This study investigated the motivation of Burundi junior secondary school students learning simultaneously three foreign languages: French, English, and Kiswahili. A 65-item questionnaire was employed to sample the views of 348 (grade 7 through 9) learners from state schools. Using Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self-system as the main theoretical framework, this study specifically explored temporal changes in L2 motivation of the participants over the three-year period across the three target languages. In doing so, the present study adopted a quantitative research design with a cross-sectional approach and the obtained data were analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics namely a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Statistical analyses were computed using SPSS - version 22. The results indicated that there were significant differences in most of the measured motivational scales across the three languages with ninth grade students scoring significantly lower than their peers from lower school grades. Moreover, the results revealed that L2 learning experience and ideal L2 self were the two variables that respectively predicted most the students’ intended effort to learn each language. One school grade-related difference was that international posture appeared as a significant factor among seventh grade students in relation to French learning and among ninth grade pupils regarding English learning. Another finding, which was unexpected, was that English (L3) appeared to be the most popular foreign language among these students. In the light of the results, pedagogical implications are discussed based on the socio-educational context of Burundi.
۳.

Acquisition of L3 English Past Perfect, Present Progressive, and Present Perfect Tenses by L1 Kirundi-L2 French Bilinguals

کلید واژه ها: Psychological Multilingualism Third Language Acquisition Linguistic Proximity Model Temporal Category EFL Learners

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۸
This study employed the Linguistic Proximity Model (LPM) to investigate the effect of cross-linguistic influence (CLI), target language proficiency as well as their interaction in the acquisition of L3 English past perfect, present progressive, and present perfect tenses by L1 Kirundi-L2 French bilinguals. In that perspective, 90 learners including 30 L1 Kirundi-L2 English bilinguals, 30 L1 French-L2 English bilinguals, and 30 L1 Kirundi-L2 French-L3 English trilinguals completed an Oxford Quick Placement Test, a Background Information Questionnaire, and a Grammaticality Judgment Task. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, post hoc comparisons, and independent sample tests. Results revealed that neither Kirundi nor French exerted an exclusive influence in the L3 past perfect and present progressive tenses. However, concerning the L3 present perfect, the results indicated a significantly facilitative effect from L2 French.  The results showed also a significant effect of target language proficiency: while lower-proficiency learners experienced a relatively negative influence from previous languages, higher-proficiency learners utilized their complex multicompetence to overcome difficulties linked to structural differences. Besides structural similarity reported in the already existing L3A studies, the findings herein point to L3 learners’ complex multicompetence as a new factor capable of driving CLI in the LPM framework.
۴.

بررسی طولی هوش هیجانی صفتی و اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی در زبان آموزان ایرانی: مدل سازی منحنی های رشد پنهان(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
شناخت دوسویه هوش هیجانی و اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی نیاز به بررسی عمیق تری برای کشف ماهیت گسترش و تعامل پیچیده این دو عامل روان شناختی دارد. در این مطالعه با استفاده از پژوهش طولی به بررسی ماهیت توسعه و تعامل هوش هیجانی صفتی و اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی در زبان آموزان ایرانی پرداخته ایم. بدین منظور، از روش منحنی های رشد پنهان طولی برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شد.جمع آوری داده ها در مدت یک سال از زبان آموزان ایرانی ای که در مؤسسات خصوصی آموزش زبان مشغول به یادگیری زبان انگلیسی بودند، انجام شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که میزان هوش هیجانی زبان آموزان در مدت پژوهش افزایش و میزان اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی آن ها کاهش یافت. همچنین، در میزان رشد و توسعه دو متغیر تفاوت های بین فردی مشاهده شد. علاوه بر این، رابطه منفی و معناداری بین منحنی های رشد اولیه دو متغیر و شیب منحنی های رشد مشاهده شد. این ارتباط در ابتدا شروع مطالعه کم بود اما با گذشت زمان در طی یک سال این ارتباط قوی تر شد. نتایج و دستاوردهای این پژوهش مورد بحث قرار گرفت.
۵.

The Effect of Academic Context of Learning on L3 Acquisition of Iranian Bilinguals(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Academic context of learning Language of contact instruction L2 status factor Cumulative enhancement model Typological primacy model

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۳۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۴
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of learning context on the acquisition of plurality agreement in English noun phrases by Iranian L3 learners of English. To this end, 64 elementary learners of English were chosen from among the students of Arabic language and literature and Persian language and literature of Ahvaz university and Yazd university via the Oxford Quick Placement test. The participants were assigned to four groups to be compared in terms of the comprehension and production of plurality agreement via a grammaticality judgment correction task and a picture description task. The first and the second groups had Persian as their first language (L1) and Arabic as their second language (L2) but differed from each other concerning their language of contact instruction, Persian and Arabic, respectively. The third and fourth groups had Arabic as the L1 and Persian as the L2 but differed from each other concerning their language of contact instruction, Persian and Arabic, respectively. The results showed that the groups which had Arabic as their language of contact instruction outperformed the other groups in both tasks, which suggests that they transferred plurality agreement facilitatively from Arabic, which was their language of contact instruction. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the context of learning matters in the acquisition of L3 properties since the L3 learners associate their language of contact instruction with the L3 in their mind due to the similarities in the learning context.
۶.

Exploring Iranian Pre-Service English Language Teachers’ Professional Identity through Sociocultural Lens(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Pre-service Teachers Professional identity practicum mentor teachers

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸
This study was an attempt to explore the process of professional identity construction of 49 male and female pre-service English language teachers of Isfahan Farhangian university Through a Vygotskian sociocultural lens. Since the construction of identity can be considered both personally and socially (Beachup & Thomas, 2009; Beijaard et al., 2004), this study took a social constructivism and Vygotskian sociocultural approach as its theoretical basis. This mixed method study was conducted through reflective journals, semi-structured interviews, and a five items Likert-type questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.19 and ANOVA for comparing the means of the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing the qualitative data. The results showed that the construction of student-teachers’ professional identity is a dynamic and unstable process which is affected by different factors such as personal and sociocultural factors, self-image, learning environment, and practicum experiences and mentor teachers. The results of the current study can be used by educational policy makers, teacher educators, and evaluators for making better decisions about teachers to make educational progress.
۷.

The Effects of Systemic-Theoretical Instruction on Developing Iranian EFL Learners’ Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of Tense-Aspect System

کلید واژه ها: cognitive grammar grammar instruction socio-cultural theory Implicit Knowledge explicit knowledge

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵۰
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Systemic Theoretical Instruction (STI), grounded in Socio-cultural Theory and proposed by Gal’perin, on developing Iranian EFL learners’ knowledge of English tense-aspect system. To this end, two low-intermediate classes, including 24 and 21 language learners aged between 12-19, were taught the distinction between simple past and present perfect tense through STI and traditional method of grammar instruction. The learners sat for a pretest one week before the treatment and an immediate and delayed posttest, one and three weeks after the instruction, respectively. The tests included binary-choice and gap-filling items to evaluate the learners’ explicit knowledge of the target tense-aspect pairings and elicited imitation test items to check their implicit knowledge. The results obtained from a series of independent and paired-sample t-tests revealed a significant improvement for both groups in the immediate posttest both in terms of the entire test and its subcomponents suggesting that both types of instruction were effective in improving the learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge of the target forms in the short term. However, the significant outperformance of the STI group compared to the traditional group implied the superiority of this method. Moreover, the STI group generally outperformed the traditional group in the delayed posttest indicating the possibility of having a more lasting effect on developing learners’ knowledge when compared to the traditional method. These findings can have significant implications for teachers and materials developers in practicing the assumptions of more innovative approaches such as STI.
۸.

Iranian Teacher Trainees’ Attitudes towards English as a Lingua Franca(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ELF Language Attitude Teacher Trainees Globalized World

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۸۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۰
The present research was an attempt to shed more enlightening light on the current wave of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), which is gradually sweeping the traditional ideologies in the field of ELT. To that end, this study examined the Iranian teacher trainees’ attitude towards ELF. What makes the present research markedly different from the other language attitude studies is in the context of research, namely Iran, an underrepresented country in the literature concerning ELF. To collect the data, the researchers employed mixed methods design, using questionnaires and follow-up semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that many a participant maintained contradictory and ambivalent attitudes towards ELF-related issues. Whilst they appeared to be favorably inclined to agree with the statements pertaining to ELF, they did not display uniform attitudes about ELF-related issues in an in-depth analysis of the results. In fact, the results revealed an underlying tendency towards NS norms among the participants. Results of the study may have implications for teacher trainers and ELF researchers.
۹.

The Impact of the Asynchronous Online Discussion Forum on the Iranian EFL Students’ Writing Ability and Attitudes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) Asynchronous online discussion forum Technology and Writing Feedback provision

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۹
This paper focuses on the impact of an asynchronous online discussion forum on the development of students’ ability in and attitudes toward writing in English. To do this, 60 undergraduate students majoring in English were assigned to two experimental and control groups while receiving different types of feedback. Students in the experimental group were required to take part in an asynchronous forum by writing a five-paragraph essay, challenging their ideas and providing feedback based on a pre-designed feedback sheet, whereas students in the control group received traditional face-to-face feedback by the teacher. Analysis of the data obtained through a pre-test, a post-test, and a survey indicated that students’ writing improved significantly in the experimental group, on both lexis and grammar planes, as the results of engaging in replying to peers’ questions, involving in writing by exchanging feedback, and employing self-assessment strategies to revise their own work. Furthermore, they also expressed more positive attitudes toward writing. The study offers implications for L2 writing instruction in EFL contexts
۱۰.

Teacher Language Awareness from the Procedural Perspective: The Case of Novice versus Experienced EFL Teachers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Teacher language awareness Procedural dimension Novice EFL teachers Experienced teachers Pedagogical practice

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۲ تعداد دانلود : ۳۶۶
Despite the abundance of research on ELT teachers, little is known about teacher language awareness (TLA) with focus on its impact on pedagogical practice in the EFL context. To fill this gap, an in-depth study was conducted to examine the procedural dimension of TLA among eight EFL teachers with different teaching experiences (novice versus experienced) related to teaching grammar at Iranian language institutes. Data were collected through non-participant classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews (of at least 7 lessons per teacher) from eight EFL teachers at three private language institutes in Iran. The findings revealed the experienced teachers’ application of TLA in their pedagogical practices in comparison to their novice counterparts. Most importantly, the application of TLA in classrooms was affected by factors, such as context, time constraints, learners’ emotions, and previous experiences as learners and teachers. This study may expand the current understanding of TLA and its impact on grammar teaching and have implications for language teacher education and development.
۱۱.

Concept-based Instruction and Teaching English Tense and Aspect to Iranian School Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: concept-based instruction explicit rule-based instruction Language Development grammar instruction cognitive grammar

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۷۰
The present study examines the role of Gal’perin’s Concept-based Instruction (CBI) as a pedagogical approach in teaching cognitive grammar-based (CG-based) concepts of tense and aspect to EFL students. Following the sociocultural theory of L2 Acquisition (SCT), arming L2 learners with scientific concepts can lead to L2 development by deepening their understanding and raising awareness of L2 structures. To this end, over the course of eight weeks 28 third grade middle school students (14 years old) received the concepts in the CBI framework and 30 third grade middle school students received a traditional type of instruction. There were three sets of data including definition of the concepts of tense and aspect before and after CBI, concept verbalization data during CBI, written discourse performance plus responses to a set of grammatical questions before and after CBI. It was found that although both groups improved significantly after receiving the instruction, the students who received CBI performed significantly better than those in the traditional group. The students who received CBI also produced a significant definition of the concepts and their written discourse performance and responses to the grammatical questions improved after CBI. The result provides insight into the application of scientific concepts in L2 instruction.
۱۲.

تحلیل فراگیری افعال کمکی انگلیسی در فارسی زبانان از منظر نظریه انتقال کامل/دسترسی کامل(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: افعال کمکی افعال اجباری افعال احتمالی افعال تمایلی نظریه ی انتقال کامل/دسترسی کامل

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۹
پژوهش حاضر، برای بررسی یادگیری افعال کمکی انگلیسی در زبان آموزان فارسی زبان صورت گرفته است؛ بدین منظور، 34 زبان آموز سطح متوسط و 33 زبان آموز سطح پیشرفته انتخاب شدند. سطح توانایی این فراگیران، با استفاده از آزمون های انتخاب صحیح و ترجمه سنجیده شد. این زبان آموزان مشکلات زیادی در به کارگیری صورت های ساده و کامل فعل کمکی would داشتند. علاوه بر آن، عدم تمایز بین افعال کمکی اجباری should، must و have to را نیز می توان یکی دیگر از مشکلات زبان آموزان به حساب آورد. با تو جه به مطالب ذکر شده و از مقایسه این دو گروه، می توان نتیجه گرفت که ساختارهای ربطی زبان انگلیسی که در زبان فارسی وجود ندارند، برای زبان آموزان حتی در سطح های بالاتر هم مشکل-آفرین اند. این یافته ها با ادعاهای مطرح شده در نظریه ی انتقال کامل/دسترسی کامل تناقض دارند که مبنی بر به کارگیری هم زمان زبان اول و قواعد زبانی در سطوح اولیه آموزشی است. واژگان کلیدی: افعال کمکی، افعال اجباری، افعال احتمالی، افعال تمایلی، نظریه انتقال کامل/دسترسی کامل.
۱۳.

Asynchronous Online Discussion Forum: A Key to Enhancing Students’ Writing Ability and Attitudes in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Asynchronous online discussion forum EFL teaching writing L2 writing in Iran Feedback provision

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۴
This paper focuses on the impact of an asynchronous online discussion forum on the development of students’ ability in and attitudes toward writing in English. Two groups of third-year students (N = 60) majoring in English were assigned to two treatment and control groups, each receiving different types of feedback. Students in the treatment group were required to participate in an online learning environment and exchange feedback with their peers, whereas students in the control group received the traditional face-to-face feedback provided by the teacher. The results of a pre-test, a post-test, and a survey revealed that students’ writing in the treatment group significantly improved, both semantically and syntactically, and they expressed more positive attitudes toward writing. The findings also indicated that as a result of engaging in the asynchronous online discussion forum and exchanging feedback with peers, students exhibited more control over their work, involved more effectively with the learning tasks, collaborated more with their classmates, and employed self-assessment strategies to independently revise or rewrite their work. The implications of the study offer guidelines to improve and facilitate writing skill in EFL contexts.
۱۴.

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: تاثیر تفاوت های فردی بر روی کاربردشناسی میان زبانی زبان آموزان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی در گفتمان سازمانی (The Impact of Individual Differences on the Interlanguage Pragmatics of Iranian EFL learners in Institutional Discourse)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: گفتار تفاوت های فردی کاربردشناسی میان زبانی گفتمان سازمانی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۷۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹۰
این پژوهش تاثیر تفاوت های فردی همچون مهارت زبانی، جنسیت و سن بر روی کاربردشناسی میان زبانی فراگیران(زبان آموزان) ایرانی زبان انگلیسی در گفتمان سازمانی مخصوصاً توانایی آنان در بازشناسی و ارزیابی اشکالات کاربردی و دستوری در وضعیت گفتاری «درخواست و عذرخواهی» را بررسی می کند. به این منظور، 187 دانشجوی EFL زبان انگلیسی در سه سطح دانشگاهی لیسانس، فوق لیسانس و دکتری در این پژوهش مشارکت کردند. گردآوری داده ها به صورت مقطعی برای تجزیه و تحلیل ارتباط بین متغیرها و گفتار که توسط زبان آموزان در سطوح مختلف مهارتی بازشناسی شده و مورد سنجش قرار گرفته اند، انجام شده است. سه روش تحلیل واریانس تفاوت های کمی را بین سه گروه براساس تفاوت های فردی نشان داد. علاوه براین، تحلیل عمیق آیتم های آزمون نشان داد که زبان آموزان در سه سطح مهارتی، اشکالات دستوری را به صورت جدی تر از اشکالات کاربردی تشخیص داده و ارزیابی کرده اند. نتایج، اطلاعات توسعه ای و کیفی در مورد ویژگی های شناختی و فردی را به تبع اطلاعات کاربردی آشکار کرد. یکی از الزامات قابل توجه آن است که در هر گونه توضیحی از توسعه توانش کاربردشناختی، تفاوت های فردی که بین مراحل شناخت و هدف همچون تولید، ایجاد شده باید مورد توجه قرار گیرد. علاوه براین، مهارت زبان شناختی نه تنها برای زبان آموزان ضرورت دارد، بلکه دستیابی به مهارت کاربردی نیز مهم است.
۱۶.

تاثیر زیرنویس معیار و وارونه در برابر عدم بکارگیری زیرنویس در فراگیری واژگان زبان دوم(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: برنامه های تلویزیونی زیرنویس دار زیرنویس معیار زیرنویس وارونه فراگیری واژگان زبان دوم

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۰۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۹۵
مواد آموزشی صوتی- تصویری همراه با زیرنویس به عنوان یک ابزار آموزشی قوی می تواند به فرایند فراگیری واژگان زبان دوم کمک نماید. تحقیق حاضر به بررسی نقش نوع زیرنویس (معیار و وارونه) در روند یادگیری واژگان می پردازد. بدین منظور چهل و پنج فراگیر زبان انگلیسی به صورت تصادفی به سه گروه تقسیم گردیدند که هر گروه به تماشای یک فیلم کارتونی به یکی از سه حالت زیر پرداختند. الف) فیلم به زبان انگلیسی بدون زیرنویس (گروه کنترل)، ب) فیلم به زبان انگلیسی با زیرنویس فارسی (گروه معیار) و پ) فیلم به زبان فارسی با زیرنویس انگلیسی (گروه وارونه). فیلم پانزده دقیقه ای مورد استفاده در تحقیق بخشی از یک فیلم کارتونی تلویزیونی بود که نشان می داد چگونه گروهی از مورچه ها در برابر ملخ های مهاجم مقابله می نمایند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد برنامه های تلویزیونی زیرنویس شده تاثیر معناداری بر فرایند فراگیری واژگان زبان دوم دارند. مطالعاتی که تاکنون در این زمینه صورت گرفته است هر کدام به نحوی به تاثیر فراگیری جنبه های مختلف زبان با توجه به نوع زیرنویس پرداخته اند. اما مطالعه حاضر برخلاف بسیاری از تحقیقات که تاکنون صورت گرفته است با بهره گیری از گروه کنترل (گروه بدون زیرنویس) به نتایج معناداری در خصوص فراگیری زبان دوم از طریق برنامه های زیرنویس دار از نوع وارونه در مقابل دو روش دیگر دست یافته است. نتایج این تحقیق می تواند برای مربیان زبان دوم به منظور به کارگیری مواد آموزشی صوتی- تصویری زیرنویس دار به ویژه به صورت وارونه در کلاس آموزش زبان انگلیسی مثمرثمر باشد.
۱۷.

On the Use of Diary Study to Investigate Avoidance Strategy in Spoken English Courses(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Gender Avoidance Strategy Communication Strategies Diary Studies Self-assessment Journal Writing Qualitative Research

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۳۹ تعداد دانلود : ۵۱۶
In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the frequency and motives of using avoidance strategies by a group of Iranian intermediate language learners through their own journal writing. The effect of gender on the use of avoidance strategies is to be investigated as well. Thirty nine female and twenty three male learners enrolled in an English language spoken course in a private English institute served as the subjects. They were to write freely about their reactions, questions, and their feelings on their endeavor to speak English at the end of each session. One questionnaire was also included to survey the learners overall learning preferences and motivation. Examination and the analysis of the learners’ diaries revealed that using avoidance strategies was due, in turn, to the lack of knowledge, effect of fellow students, stress, lack of confidence, the effect of the teacher, score, and fatigue. Analysis also revealed that females used strategies more frequently than male supporting a number of research done previously on the same area.

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