Extramarital relations are among the main problems in the relationships of married couples that can result in psychological disorders, tensions between couples, and even physical problems in the people involved. The risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, is high among the people who have extramarital relations. A large number of studies have addressed this issue, but there is no consistency in the results, and no research has reviewed them systematically. This study aims to depict a comprehensive image of the relationship between extramarital relationships and contracting HIV/AIDS. This systematic review will be conducted using Pubmed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, as well as the grey literature with no restriction regarding the language. All types of studies investigated the relationship between extramarital relations and HIV/AIDS will be included. The population of the study will be considered the people more than 18 years old with extramarital relationships in their lives at the time of research or before. Two independent reviewers will perform the study selection and data extraction. The assessment of the risk of bias will be implemented using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plots, Begg’s, and Egger’s tests. Heterogeneity will be evaluated using the I2 statistic and the χ2 test. Also, we will conduct subgroup analyses for the population and all Meta-analyses will be performed using Stata V.13 software. The findings will reveal a comprehensive picture of the relation between extramarital relationships and HIV/AIDS that can improve policy decisions, leading to a reduction and providing improved special services for individuals, couples, and families, and society who faced this problem.
Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Distress Tolerance, Pain Perception and Interleukin-12 in MS Patients(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) on distress tolerance, pain perception, and interleukin-12 (IL-12) in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Method: The present study was a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow-up with control group. The statistical population included all female patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had referred to Neuroscience and Rehabilitation Research Centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 20 patients were selected by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental (10 patients) and control groups (10 patients). The experimental group received the CBSM. Participants completed scales. To measure IL-12, the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results: CBSM increased the distress tolerance and components of pain perception (perceived influence of important people and doing daily affairs) (p <0.001) and it decreased pain severity and IL-12. Also, these changes remained stable during follow-up. Conclusions: CBSM is an effective to influence on distress tolerance, pain perception, and IL-12 in MS patients.
Comparison of Defense Mechanisms in Women with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy versus Ordinary Counterparts(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background and Purpose: Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, the contracting of which causes numerous physical, psychological and social consequences. However, there are a number of defense mechanisms humans possess, which are responsible for protecting an individual against the stress, anxieties and pressures of everyday life. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken with the aim of comparatively investigating the defense mechanisms in a group of woman with temporal lobe epilepsy against a non-clinical group of females. Materials & Methods: The research design of the present study was based on a causal-comparative case study. The statistical population of the study consisted of all epileptic women and their normal counterparts who had referred to Imam Hossein Hospital in Tehran during the first half of 2019. The sample population included 40 female patients already diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy by neurologists through electro-encephalography who were randomly selected and compared to their 40 normal counterparts. The two studied groups were similar in terms of age, education and marital status. Research data were gathered using the Andrews Defense Mechanism Questionnaire (DSQ40) and analyzed by the SPSS24 software program employing multivariate statistical analysis of variance. Results: There was a significant difference (p <0.05) between the defense mechanism used in epileptic women and that of healthy women. Conclusion: It can be concluded that women with epilepsy have different defense mechanisms and are more likely to use immature mechanisms and neurotic defense mechanisms (only in terms of False Altruism ) when compared to normal women
Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Neurocognitive Function in People with Mild Neurocognitive Impairment(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Abstract The aim of the present study was investigating the effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on neurocognitive performance in people with mild neurocognitive impairment. Using meta-analysis and integrating the research results, this study has specified the extent of the effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on improvement of neurocognitive function in people with mild neurocognitive impairment. Method: For meta-analyses Magiran, SID, and Irandoc databases were used to search Persian articles and Science direct, Scopus, and PubMed databases were used to find foreign articles, using ‘MCI’, ‘transcranial direct current stimulation’, tDCS, and ‘mild cognitive impairment’ key words for foreign articles and their Persian equivalents for Persian articles. Of the 29 studies, 11 that were methodologically acceptable were meta-analyzed. The research tool was a meta-analysis checklist. Results: The results of meta-analysis indicated publication bias in the studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a random effect model was used. The effect of Hedges for the impact of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on neurocognitive functions in people with mild neurocognitive impairment was 0.26, which is a large effect. Conclusion: This result shows clinicians can choose transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as effective intervention for patients who suffer from mild cognitive impairments. More investigations are necessary to find the cognitive benefits of using transcranial direct current stimulation in elderly people and other cognitive impaired persons.
Effectiveness of Lifestyle-Based Stress Management Program on Emotional Problems and Life Satisfaction in Patients with Myocardial Infarction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lifestyle-based stress management program on emotional problems and life satisfaction in patients with myocardial infarction. Method: This research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. The statistical population of this research consisted of all patients aged 40-65 years old with myocardial infarction who were under treatment at Kasra Hospital in Karaj in the first six months of 2019. The study sample consisted of 90 patients with heart attack who were identified among the patients and selected by targeted sampling method and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale as well as the Satisfaction With Life Scale. The collected data were analyzed using the method of Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the lifestyle-based stress management program significantly reduced emotional problems and increased life satisfaction in the experimental group (p <0.01). Conclusions: The stress management program helped patients identify dysfunctional thoughts that trigger anxiety and depression and experience fewer emotional problems by feeling self-control, attention management, changing the assessment system and using cognitive strategies. Also, by identifying and correcting irrational attitudes and beliefs, the subjects were able to better cope with the physical effects of the disease or to deal with its negative psychological complications and have more life satisfaction. These findings have important implications for education and promoting mental health of patients with myocardial infarction.
The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Improvement of the Perceived Stress and Symptoms of Depression among Women-Headed Households(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: some recent evidences have been recently achieved on the beneficial effects of mindfulness based on stress reduction on stress reduction and perceived anxiety and thus improve mental disorders caused by stress. Because women-headed households are one of the groups in the society that need to be studied because of the progressive problems they are experiencing as one of the most affected sections of society, the present study attempted to assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on improvement of the decreased perceived stress and symptoms of depression among this group. Methods: This quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest approach and following-up included 400 women aged 25 to 50 years female-headed households covered by Ilam City Relief Committee. The population was randomly divided into control and experimental groups and the preserved stress and depression situations were assessed using the Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II respectively. Mindfulness-based stress reduction was implemented as an 8-week training program and all subjects were reassessed after intervention completion. Results: The baseline characteristics of study subjects in two groups were similar. The mean preserved stress and depression scores improved both significantly in the experiment group after intervention as well as within the follow-up time, however the pointed changes were not revealed in control group. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based approach to stress reduction had a positive effect on perceived stress and depression symptoms in female-headed households
Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Goal Orientation and Feeling of Inferiority in Individuals with Physical-Motor Disabilities(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on goal orientation and feeling of inferiority in individuals with physical-motor disabilities. Methods: This study utilized a quasi-experimental methodology. The statistical population consisted of all students with physical-motor disabilities in Kalaleh County (n = 517). Among them, 30 students were selected as a sample using a convenience sampling method. After explaining the purpose of the research and signing the consent form, they were divided into two groups of 15: the experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in eight ACT training sessions (one 60-minute session per week), while the control group only answered pretest and posttest. For this purpose, Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Orientations Scale (2001) and Eysenck's Feelings of Inferiority Questionnaire (1976) were used. Results and Conclusions: The findings indicated the effect of ACT-based training on mastery-approach goal orientation and feeling of inferiority in students with physical-motor disabilities. Examining the means showed that the mastery-approach goal orientation increased, and the feeling of inferiority decreased after ACT.
Effectiveness of Barlow`s Unified Transdiagnostic Treatment, Emotion- Focused Therapy and Mindfulness on Moderating the Eating Behavior of Adults with Obesity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Barlow's transdiagnostic, emotion-focused and mindfulness therapy on moderating the eating behavior of adults with obesity. Method: The present research project was a quasi experimental pre test- post test, and follow up with a control group. The statistical population included all people with obesity in Tehran. Sixty people were randomly selected through available sampling methods and were assigned to four groups: (1) Barlow's transdiagnostic therapy, (2) emotion- focused therapy, (3) mindfulness-based therapy and (4) control group. Data were analyzed using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in three stages: pre test,- post test, and follow up, and were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance test. Results: The research findings showed that intragroup effects regarding emotional, environmental, and inhibited eating were significant (p <0.05). Regarding intergroup effects, a significant and stable effectiveness was found in the subscale of emotional and inhibited eating in emotion- focused therapy group and in the subscale of environmental eating in mindfulness-based therapy group (p <0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be said that emotion- focused therapy, can help people to moderate emotional and inhibited eating through emotional experience and making sense of emotions, and mindfulness therapy can help people to moderate environmental eating by making them focus on the present moment and break repetitive patterns.
Investigate the Effect of Social Support on Marital Satisfaction with Mediating Role of Emotional Loneliness and Physical Activity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Objective: One of the most important social factors that have been consistently identified as a predictor of healthy aging is marriage satisfaction. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of social support on marital satisfaction with mediating role of emotional loneliness and physical activity. Method: This study was descriptive and correlational based on structural equations. The statistical population consisted of all the elderly in the care centers of Shahrekord and Farsan in 2019, among whom 180 individuals were selected randomly. The participants filled out research instruments including Relationship Assessment scale (Hendrick, 1998), Perceived Social Support scale (Zimet, et al., 1988), Adult’s Social and Emotional Loneliness scale (DiTommasso, et al., 2004), and Leisure-time Activities scale (Godin, 1985). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used through SPSS (version 23) and AMOS (version 23) software to analyze the data. Findings: The results demonstrated direct effect of social support, emotional loneliness and physical activity on marital satisfaction (p <0.001), and indirect effect of perceived social support on marital satisfaction through emotional loneliness and physical activity (p <.05). Conclusion: The SEM results of the current study support the proposed model which explains the interrelationships between perceived social support, loneliness, physical activity, and marital satisfaction. According to the findings of the present study, it is suggested to pay more attention to the variables of social support, emotional loneliness and physical activity in order to improve the marital relationships of the elderly. The findings of this study can help psychologists and other caretakers create more effective family matter programs for the older generations to enhance their marital satisfaction.
The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Training on the Resilience of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Abstract Objective: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and disabling disease. The purpose of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on the resilience of patients with multiple sclerosis Method: This research was a quasi-experimental design with pre-test, post-test and follow-up, and a control group. The statistical population included female patients with MS referred to the Dr. Shahbigi Neurology Clinic in Tehran. 30 patients were selected by purposeful sampling method and assigned to the two groups experimental and control group randomly. The experimental group underwent ten sessions of stress management training based on the Cognitive Behavioral Model. Data were collected using the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. Research data were analyzed using Mixed Repeated Measures ANOVA. Results: The results revealed that cognitive-behavioral stress management training can significantly enhance the resilience of patients with MS. Conclusion: Therefore, the use of cognitive-behavioral stress management training can be effective in improving the resilience of patients with MS.