Every year, crises cause extensive and occasionally irreversible damage to countries and human societies affecting communities, economies, and environments. Identifying, proper planning, and optimum managing of crises are among the priorities of government programs and procedures. With the expansion and complexity of the societies and variety and innumerability of crisis-making factors, mere use of traditional methods of reinforcement and crisis management would not be efficient. One of the most important ideas brought about in the present decade for crisis management and urban planning is creating resilient cities in the face of various crises by increasing their capacity in all aspects. The significance of this standpoint is the comprehensive look at crisis-making factors, controlling crises, and reduction of vulnerability, particularly in human resources, which speeds the resilience process. Although all infrastructural or environmental, economic, social-cultural, and organizational or institutional aspects have been taken into consideration in resilience, the focus on social and cultural capacitating in each and every citizen would be greatly effectual in a developing country such as Iran. This land endures weak infrastructures and structures, but enjoys a rich cultural and national support from the citizens’ creativity and participation that can help us with achieving the goal of flexibility in crisis management by spending the least amount of time and money. In the present paper, the experiences of other nations and novel concepts such as creative cities, resistant development, principles of futures study and planning, and process-oriented strategic management have been studied along with the current state of Iran. Finally, the method of “Strategic Futures Study and Planning based on GIS” is suggested as a suitable approach in crisis management planning. In the author’s point of view, complete use of this method could help us significantly reduce the losses of disasters and pioneer in the field of crisis management among developing countries.<br /> <strong> </strong>
مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Resilience "
Representation of Crises in Coursebooks of the Public Education System: A Study Based on Content Analysis
how crises are represented in elementary and high school textbooks through content analysis method. In the first step, the basic concepts related to this topic, were extracted from Iranian and international scientific and legal documents deductively. Then, 68 extracted concepts were put into 12 categories and were sent to the field experts in the form of a questionnaire.The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was computed.88 with Cronbach's Alpha. The extracted categorieswere again offered to some field experts and validated. Based on confirmed categories, the content of textbooks (28 titles) and teacher's guidebooks (12 titles) were analyzed. The results of analyzing the textbooks show that the main focus is first on the issue of crisisology and the consequences of crises, and second, on preventive actions which encompass%80 of the content. The remainder of the related content was concerned with other topics; the contribution of the content that focused on resiliency and recovery is less than other concepts.The comparison of the weights allocated by the experts and the weights gained from the textbooks analysis was made by Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests; in both tests, a meaningful difference was observed.
The present study is an attempt to discover the relationships among reflection, role stressors and resilience. To this end, a mixed-method approach was adopted. In the quantitative phase, 122 EFL teachers completed three questionnaires namely English Language Teaching Reflection Inventory, Teacher Role Stressors Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The results of correlation indicated that there is a significant positive relation between reflection and resilience. However, the correlation between reflection and role stressors was found to be negative. Multiple regression revealed that of the five components of reflection, metacognitive and critical reflection are significant predictors of role ambiguity while only critical reflection can predict role conflict. Metacognitive and practical reflection were also found to be significant predictors of teachers’ resilience. In the qualitative phase, fifteen face-to-face interviews were conducted with the participants who had also taken part in the first phase of the study. Data were transcribed, coded and thematically structured based on a grounded theoretical perspective. The two main themes which emerged out of the interviews confirmed that reflection leads to resilience through strengthening teachers’ professional identity while it also leads to resilience or stress through making teachers prepared and knowledgeable. The possible justifications of the obtained results as well as the implications of this study for teaching English and teacher education in EFL context are discussed.
Today, random and intelligent risks have made supply management disruptive much more than before. Over the past decade, many supply network (SN) disruptions in oil and gas industry have been due to the deliberate risks posed by international sanctions. Undoubtedly, resilience in general and resilience of SN in particular has been a systematic approach for firms and organizations to deal with disruptions. This study aimed to measure, assess and compare the resilience of SNs in oil and gas companies based on mixed approach: Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). The statistical population of the study consisted of 11 subsidiaries of the National Iranian Oil Company. A robust systematic review of the literature was conducted to collect all the crucial components of supply network resilience (SNR) from 608 articles that ultimately resulted in 40 key factors based on the context-intervention-mechanism-outcome logic (CIMO-logic). Quantitative analysis was carried out in the upstream sector of 3 subsidiaries of Iranian Central Oil Fields Company (ICOFC) including South Zagros, East and West Oil and Gas Production Companies. The results demonstrated a relationship between components and their measurement in upstream companies. A further finding is that South Zagros Oil and Gas Production Company was more resilient than the other two companies.