Wisdom is one of the highest virtues and in a wide range of social activities, ultimately improves oneself and society. It is inherently involved in ethical behavior and the pursuit of social justice and equity for all. Moral intelligence is also one of the moral constructs that lead humans to perform great valuable actions. The purpose of this study was to explain wisdom based on the moral intelligence. For this purpose, a sample of 350 adults (220 females and 130 males) in the age range of 20 to 72 was selected by multistage cluster sampling method from different districts and communities. They answered the wisdom questionnaire of San Diego and the moral intelligence of Lennik and Kiel. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of the analysis demonstrated that the model fits best for this purpose as the effect of moral intelligence and its dimensions on wisdom was confirmed. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that social and educational settings and environments, in addition to conventional intelligence, can benefit from moral intelligence where wise people with high wisdom can contribute effectively to a better community development.
The Relationship between The Hidden Curriculum Components and The Affective Attitudes of High School Students' Learning(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the hidden curriculum components and the affective attitudes of students' learning in high schools and to create a better learning and educational setting. The research adopted a quantitative method using a cross-sectional survey. The population consisted of 277 male high school students in District 1 of Bandar Abbas in the academic year 2019-2020. They were selected through the cluster sampling method and randomly assigned to the experimental groups. Data were gathered by the Affective Attitudes of Learning Questionnaire and the Hidden Curriculum Components Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in a quantitative way. In the quantitative part, the results of multiple regression showed that there was a correlation (0.0627) between the components of the hidden curriculum with affective attitudes of learning that was significant at (0.095) confidence level. To compare the differences between the scores of the hidden curriculum components in different types of high schools, the quantitative findings showed the mean scores of most components in Exceptional Talents (SAMPAD) high school were significantly higher than the mean scores in public and non-public high schools (P <0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that the components of the hidden curriculum have a profound and lasting impact on their affective attitudes toward school, textbooks, courses, and their academic self-concept.
The Association of Academic Self-actualization, Self-regulation, and Classroom Socio-psychological Climate with Student Academic Motivation Mediated with Achievement Emotions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study aimed to investigate the association between academic self-actualization, self-regulation, and classroom socio-psychological climate with students' academic motivation with the mediation of achievement emotions in high school students. The statistical population of this cross-sectional correlational study consisted of all high school students in Tehran in 2019, with 485 students selected using multistage cluster sampling. The research instruments included the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Self-Actualization Scale (SAS), Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Classroom Socio-psychological climate, and Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM) in SPSS and Lisrel software. The results showed that academic self-actualization, achievement emotions, and classroom socio-psychological climate had a positive association with academic motivation in the high school students (p<0.01). Moreover, there was a significant association between self-regulation and academic motivation among the students (p<0.01). The findings indicated that academic self-actualization, self-regulation, and classroom socio-psychological climate had an effect on students' academic motivation, with achievement emotions acting as a mediator (p<0.01).
Predicting the role of learning approaches, studying strategies, Metacognitive strategies, and reflective thinking with students’ academic achievements(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study aims to predict the role of learning approaches, studying strategies, metacognitive strategies, and reflective thinking on students’ academic achievements. A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in Iran. The statistical population encompasses the all 5000 students at Roudehen Islamic Azad University throughout 2020-2021. According to Morgan's Table, the sample size was estimated to be 384 persons. Five standard questionnaires including studying strategies, learning approaches, metacognitive strategies, reflective thinking and academic achievement were used for data gathering. Structural equations based on partial least squares were used to analyze the data. The results showed a moderate relationship between learning approaches and metacognitive strategies while a significant relationship was observed between learning approaches, studying strategies, and reflective thinking (P<0.05). There was also a weak relationship between learning approaches and academic achievement. Beside, a moderate relationship was observed between metacognitive strategies and academic achievement, and a significant relationship was revealed between reflective thinking and academic achievement. Numerous factors affect academic achievement. Managers and families by recognizing these variables and providing appropriate conditions could smooth the rate of success for students.
Traces of Critical Thinking Ability in the English for Academic Purposes Textbook for the Students of Medicine(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The current study aimed to investigate the representation of critical thinking in English for the Students of Medicine (II) and the status of the EAP students’ critical thinking ability as its main users. Peterson’s model was used to identify different types of critical reading questions. Furthermore, 150 students of medicine, as the main users of the textbook, completed a critical thinking questionnaire. The results revealed that a large proportion of the exercises in this textbook reflected Vocabulary in Context and Literal Comprehension questions while Extended Reasoning questions, as the major category catering for critical reading, constituted only five percent of the whole items. The results of an independent sample t-test also indicated a moderate level of critical thinking ability among the EAP students of medicine regardless of their gender. The findings call for revisiting the English for Medical Purposes materials and incorporating more activities and exercises gearing to higher-order cognitive skills and critical thinking ability to empower the EAP students with the required set of skills to be successful in their academic and professional communities.
Investigating and Comparing the Relationship between Academic Buoyancy, Learning Styles, and School Bonding among Students at Mizan and Public Schools(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study aimed to investigate and compare the relationship between academic buoyancy, learning styles, and school bonding among students educated via the educational approaches of Mizan and public schools in Tehran. The study was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population comprised 2680 elementary-school students in Tehran in the 2018-2019 academic year. A sample of 600 was selected from public and guided discovery schools (300 students from public and 300 from Mizan guided discovery schools) based on stratified random sampling. The research tools included Martin and Marsh Academic Buoyancy Scale, Grasha-Riechmann Learning Style Survey (LSS), and Rezaei Sharif School Bonding Questionnaire (SBQ). Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the score of academic buoyancy was significantly higher among students receiving guided discovery than those receiving traditional education (p <0.05). The mean scores of avoidant and competitive learning styles were lower in students receiving guided discovery learning (p <0.05). Furthermore, the mean scores of school bonding and belief in school were higher among students receiving guided discovery than public education. (p <0.05). The study findings further highlighted the significance of considering learning styles and school bonding on academic buoyancy. It is considered a crucial step in understanding the factors affecting academic buoyancy in students.
A Study of Motivation, Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Feelings as Psychological Factors Among Iranian Non-English PhD Students in EPT(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
As noted by Shohamy (1982), affective considerations in language testing have occupied an outstanding place in education. Despite the importance of this issue, it appears that the test-takers' perceptions regarding motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and feelings in addition to their possible relationships have not been investigated in much detail. To narrow the gap, the primary aims of this paper were to explore Iranian non-English PhD students’ perceptions about motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and feelings. This paper also sought to investigate the association between motivation and self-efficacy beliefs, motivation and feelings, as well as self-efficacy beliefs and feelings. To collect the data, an attitudinal researcher-made questionnaire constructed and validated (in Persian) with 15 items from 1-5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree). To ensure reliability, pilot study was conducted on 60 participants; subsequently, the questionnaire was distributed among 252 participants throughout Iran by online administration. The results of descriptive statistics using SPSS displayed that participants were intrinsically motivated to be prepared for this English Proficiency Test (EPT). Furthermore, they showed the low level of self-efficacy beliefs towards their achievement in the test with high level of amotivation. Lastly, spearman results confirmed that all of these psychological factors were significantly correlated.