The current study aimed at predicting the need for achievement and responsibility among students based on their perceived competence and novelty-seeking. The population consisted of all the 987 students of Islamic Azad University in Gachsaran, Iran, and, based on Cochrane’s formula, a sample of 350 students was assessed using random cluster sampling. The study was practical and used a correlational design. The measures comprised the Herman’s Achievement Motivation Test, the Responsibility Questionnaire, the Perceived Competence Scale, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory. Data from Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariable regression analyses showed that perceived competence and novelty-seeking could both meaningfully predict the need for achievement. Novelty-seeking was also a meaningful predictor of responsibility. However, perceived competence did not predict responsibility. The independent variables also, directly and indirectly, predicted the level of responsibility through the need for achievement, novelty-seeking, and perceived competence. Keywords: Need for achievement; Novelty-seeking; Perceived competence; Responsibility.
Priority-Setting of Effective Components on the Teaching-Learning Model with Approach to Improving Problem-Solving Ability(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Problem-solving is an ability human beings need to live better lives, however, some do not possess enough of this acquirable skill. Although many studies have concerned themselves with problem solving, this study has investigated it from a different angle. The present study was aimed at the priority-setting of components effective on the teaching-learning model, with a focus on improving problem solving ability in upper secondary school students. This study used a descriptive-correlational design. The population consisted of professors of the Education Department of Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, who were actively working in 2019-2020 academic year, a total of 12 professors. Out of them, 10 individuals were selected as the sample through non-random availability sampling, based on Morgan’s table. The questionnaire entailed 12 components and 38 items. Network analysis was adopted for priority-setting of effective components. Furthermore, data and statistical analyses were conducted using Super Decisions, SPSS, and Excel. The results showed that ‘creativeness and creativity’ was the most important component, and ‘intelligence’ the least important component in the teaching-learning model.
Bilingualism and Personality Shifts: Different Personality Traits in Persian- English Bilinguals Shifting Between Two Languages(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of this descriptive-internet survey was to examine whether Persian- English bilinguals express different personality traits when they switch language when responding to Big Five Inventory (BFI) as a measure of personality once in Persian and once in English. It has been proposed that language activates cultural specific frames and bilinguals represent different personality patterns in each language. In this research 60 Persian- English sequential bilinguals living in the United States were selected by volunteer sampling method. They were asked to respond to an online version of BFI in both languages. The result demonstrated that, bilinguals had higher levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness in English than in Persian where as their scores for Neuroticism were lower in English. These findings support the effect of language on personality and demonstrate the function of language as a strong cue for Cultural Frame Switching (CFS) since language was able to activate CFS for Agreeableness, Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism.
Awakening the Critical Thinking Ability of College Students through Socio-culturally Mediated Instructor Tools in Higher Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study attempted to examine the extent to which university instructors contributed as obstacles or facilitators to developing critical thinking skills in undergraduate, graduate, and doctorate students. To this end, six university classes, two classes from each of the above-mentioned programs, were selected randomly from the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics in a State University. The corpus of the study was collected via video recordings during a semester. Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory was utilized to interpret the data. The results revealed that instructors in BA and one of MA classes were facilitators of critical thinking skills, while those in the other MA class and both Ph.D. classes acted more as obstacles to such skills. This finding contradicted the expectations of the researcher who, based on Fisher’s (2005) arguments, believed that thinking skills should be more developed at tertiary levels by instructors, particularly as one moves from bachelor to master and doctoral levels, which are more about frontiers of knowledge. The implications of the study pointed to the vital role of the university instructors in promoting thinking skills by decreasing interruptions, increasing wait-time, asking referential questions, and using selective repair.
The Effects of Planning Time Conditions and Writing Type on the Metacognitive Strategies of Iranian EFL Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study attempted to probe into the effects of four planning time conditions (pre-task, extended task, free writing, and control) over the frequency of employing metacognitive strategies in argumentative and expository writings of 108 participants. Employing an experimental writing task design under four planning time conditions and implementing a retrospective questionnaire, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted. Through implementing the retrospective questionnaire, an 8-point Likert-type scale was used and the associated statistical procedures were employed. The results showed that the frequency of the use of Generation of Ideas strategy was significantly higher in the argumentative writings than in the expository writings. The use of Elaboration of Ideas strategy was significantly different from Thinking about Language Aspects strategy and Thinking about the Essay Structure strategy and it was the lowest. The highest strategy use belonged to ‘Thinking about Language Aspects strategy’, followed by Thinking about the Essay Structure, Generation of Ideas, Organization of Ideas and Elaboration of Ideas strategies respectively. The use of ‘Thinking about Language Aspects strategy’ in the extended task condition was different from the other groups, and it was the lowest. In ‘Thinking about Language Aspects strategy’ use no significant differences were observed among argumentative and expository writings. The study can help broaden the understanding of EFL writers’ metacognitive writing processes involving planning and, the results may have pedagogical implications for EFL writing instructors and theoretical implications for EFL writing researchers.
Computer Games: Potential Opportunities for Educating Master’s Students at the Iranian Universities(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of this study was to determine the potential power of teaching using urban simulation software such as the SimCity computer game for educating master’s students at Iranian Universities. This quasi-experimental study was conducted considering two groups: one control group and one experimental group, including a pre-test and a post-test design. The sample of the study consisted of 60 students of three public universities of Art (Tehran, Isfahan, and Yazd) in 2017-2018. Thirty master’s students in urban planning and urban design were selected from the population using a random sampling method and were randomly divided into two groups: one experimental group and one control group (30 participants in each). The pre-test and the post-test included the Torrance test in creativity with Abedi's questionnaire and the open-ended and close-ended "workshop course learning skills" questionnaires were distributed in both groups. The experimental group was trained by the SimCity computer game, while the control group received normal classroom training. The pre-test and post-test results were analyzed using the IBM SPSS, and the inferential statistics in the form of the Pearson correlation, the Analysis of Covariance, and independent samples t-test were investigated. Findings showed that the SimCity positively improved the participants’ skills of learning workshop courses in the aforesaid fields, and increased their overall scores. Regarding the components of the learning skills in this course, it improved problem-solving and the planning skills of the students. However, the status of these components did not considerably improve the creativity and systems thinking of postgraduate students.
An Investigation into Iranian Non-English PhD Students’ Perceptions Regarding Learning as an Educational Consequence of EPT(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
It appears that English Proficiency Test (EPT) as a high stake test plays a key role in addressing many aspects of the educational system and individuals' lives. This paper aimed to represent Iranian non-English PhD students’ perceptions regarding their learning and testing preferences, and to investigate the relationship between educational consequences and psychological consequences of EPT among Iranian non-English PhD students. To reach the goals, two attitudinal researcher-made questionnaires developed and validated (in Persian) at five point Likert-scale format scaling from 1-5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree); subsequently, pilot study was conducted and then the instruments were distributed among 252 participants via online administration throughout Iran. The analyzed results by the software package of SPSS, version 24 showed that deep learning had the highest mean among other subscales and item 3 in testing preferences which was related to creativity hit the lowest mean score. Moreover, the results confirmed that there was a significant and positive relationship between educational consequences and psychological consequences.