Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, Volume 5, Issue 17, Spring 2022 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Effectiveness of a Philosophy for Children Program on Aspects of School Engagement(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: effectiveness philosophy for children School Engagement students

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تعداد بازدید : 912 تعداد دانلود : 389
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Philosophy for Children Course on aspects of students' school engagement. School engagement is a structure indicating that students can create personal relationships with their teachers in addition to the educational content. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on 7th-grade students (n=128) from 4 classes at the same school as the intervention and control groups. In the current quasi-experimental, pre-test, and post-test study, the independent variable was the philosophy for children (P4C) program (ten 60 minute sessions) and the dependent variables were the school engagement aspects including behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agency engagements. To analyze the data ANOVA was used. The findings indicated that the score of all four aspects of school engagement were significantly higher in the intervention group who attended the Philosophy for Children Program  than those of the control group. Based on the obtained results, 28.2% of changes in total school engagement were attributed to the P4C program. The results show a significant increase in school engagement and its aspects. Philosophy for Children Program can be used to create an educational atmosphere with the highest relationship to students’ curriculum in which the students can rule out their learning behaviors with high motivation.

Comparing the Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy and Narrative Therapy on Aggression and Assertiveness of Students with an Educable Intellectual Disability(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Aggression assertiveness Cognitive-behavioral play therapy intellectual disability narrative therapy

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تعداد بازدید : 877 تعداد دانلود : 298
The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral play therapy and narrative therapy on aggression and assertiveness of students with an educable intellectual disability. This study followed a quasi-experimental research design with a pre-test, post-test, and a control group. The statistical population included all students with an educable intellectual disability enrolled in Tabriz elementary schools, of whom 45 male students were randomly assigned to two experimental and one control groups (15 per group) using convenience sampling. The Shahim Aggression Questionnaire for Elementary School Students (2006) and the Gmbryl and Ritchie’s Assertiveness Questionnaire (1975) were used to collect data. After the pre-test, one of the experimental groups received a play therapy program while the other group received narrative therapy. Afterward, all the groups sat for a post-test. Moreover, although the control group did not receive any therapy, they were required to participate in pre-and post-tests and complete the questionnaires. The covariance analysis revealed a significant difference in aggression and assertiveness between cognitive-behavioral play therapy, narrative therapy and the control groups (0.001). Narrative therapy was more effective at reducing aggression than cognitive-behavioral play therapy, with an effect size of 69%. Additionally, narrative therapy was more effective than play therapy at increasing assertiveness, with an effect size of 74%.  Thus, narrative therapy and cognitive-behavioral play therapy can be used in conjunction to alleviate psychological problems in students with educable intellectual disabilities.  

The Effect of Domain-Specific and Domain-General Precursors of Mathematical Training on Preschoolers' Number Sense and Estimation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Domain-specific precursors Number estimation number sense Preschooler working memory

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تعداد بازدید : 205 تعداد دانلود : 474
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of domain-specific and domain-general precursors of mathematical training on preschoolers' number sense and estimation. This study adopted a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest-follow-up design. The statistical population comprised all preschoolers in Kermanshah (Iran) in 2020. Using multi-stage cluster random sampling, a sample of 45 was selected and allocated to three groups (15 per group). The data were collected using the short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Number Sense Screener, and the PLUS test (number estimation). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean (SD) of IQ was 95.91 (4.21) in the working memory group and 97.78 (3.38) and 96.66 (4.03), respectively, in the number estimation and control groups. In the linear combination of number estimation variables in terms of group membership, the group x time interaction was significant on the pretest, posttest, and follow-up (p<0.01). The difference in the mean scores of the working memory, number estimation, and control groups was also significant on the variable of number sense (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the two training methods on the posttest and follow-up, and both interventions exerted the same effect on improving number sense and estimation.

Investigating the Music and Melodic Teaching Impacts on the Math Learning Progress of Elementary School Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Elementary School LEARNING math Melodic teaching music

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تعداد بازدید : 193 تعداد دانلود : 419
Inventing and applying motivational, highly efficient, and engaging strategies for teaching elementary school students is a concern that has always occupied the minds of teachers and experts in this field. Meanwhile, using music as an easy and accessible, low-cost, and popular solution in creating and promoting creativity, self-confidence, motivation, and cognitive skills and students' self-directed learning has been considered an important and effective strategy. To this end, the present research investigated the music and melodic teaching impact on the math learning progress of the third-grade elementary school students in Tehran. The research adopted a quasi-experimental design with the experimental and control group. The statistical population included about 20,000 third-grade students in region 1 of Tehran that were selected as available sampling from two Rastar and Meysam Tamar schools, from which 30 students were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (15 in each group) as the study sample. Both groups learned the same and the specified concepts. However, the experimental group learned these concepts using music and melodic teaching while the control group learned these concepts using the lecture-based teaching method and the final math scores of the students were used in the analyses. As the instrument, a demographic information questionnaire, the mathematic motivation questionnaire, a progress test and an achievement test were used in this study. The results of covariance analysis showed that teaching math using music and melodic method has a significant positive impact on elementary school students’ math learning (70.8%) and more motivated learning (86%). Therefore, it can be concluded that by using melodic teaching in teaching math concepts can be more effective than traditional teaching methods.

The Causal Relationship between Intelligence Beliefs and Performance in the Chemistry Course with the Mediating Role of Emotion Self-Regulation in Female Senior High School Students in Mahmudabad(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Chemistry course performance emotional self-regulation Intelligence beliefs

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تعداد بازدید : 292 تعداد دانلود : 623
Emotional self-regulation plays a very critical role in promoting intelligence beliefs and improving students' academic performance. Through emotional self-regulation, students can believe in the effectiveness of their intelligence and achieve higher performance in their educational and learning processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between IQ beliefs and chemistry performance with emotional self-regulation mediation in students. This study was applied in terms of purpose, and considering data collection procedure, it was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population included all 275 female students of 11 public senior high schools in Mahmudabad, the 11th grade, in the academic year 2020-2021. Based on the census method, the whole population of the research community was used as a sample. The instruments used for data collection included the Intelligence Beliefs Questionnaire (Babaei, 1998) and the Emotion Self-Regulatory Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003).  Also, the final score of the chemistry course was used as the chemistry performance of the participants. To analyze the data, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, Bartlett’s test, correlation coefficient, regression, path analysis and structural equation modeling were used. The findings showed that there was a statistical significant relationship between intelligence beliefs, emotion self-regulation and students' chemistry performance. In addition, intelligence beliefs and emotion self-regulation have a direct effect on students' performance in chemistry. Also, intelligence beliefs have a significant effect on the performance of students' chemistry lessons through the mediation of emotion self-regulation. It should be mentioned that the research model had a very good fit. Given that intelligence beliefs and emotion self-regulation can predict the performance of students in the chemistry course, it is recommended to modify cognitive beliefs and teach emotion self-regulation techniques in order to improve students' academic performance.

The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Critical Thinking Disposition and their Writing Strategy Use(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Critical thinking disposition Individual differences Iranian EFL Students Language learning strategy Writing Strategies

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تعداد بازدید : 64 تعداد دانلود : 69
As the learning of foreign languages has increasingly become learner-centered, instructors are advised to take learners' characteristics into consideration to which they can tailor their teaching practices. There are several factors that influence language learning including critical thinking dispositions and learning strategies. This study examined the relationship between critical thinking dispositions and writing strategies, as well as the extent to which Iranian English learners utilize certain writing strategies. This study adopted a correlational design. The statistical population included students majoring in English in Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, of whom 150 students were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected using Ricketts' (2003) Critical Thinking Disposition Scale (2003) and Abdollahzadeh’s (2010) Writing Strategy Questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by 101 students from which eleven students whose responses were distorted excluded and the remaining 90 responses were analyzed using a bivariate correlation analysis. According to the results, learners' critical thinking disposition was positively correlated with their writing strategy. Additionally, the results demonstrated that Iranian EFL learners occasionally used a variety of writing strategies. It is also noteworthy that metacognitive and cognitive strategies were applied at a higher frequency than others. Thus, it can be concluded that critical thinking plays a vital role in employing different writing strategies.

Effectiveness of Gagne’s Model of Instructional Design on Attention Level and Working Memory Capacity of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Attention Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Gagnes model reaction time Working memory capacity

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تعداد بازدید : 51 تعداد دانلود : 151
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Gagne’s model of instructional design on the attention and working memory capacity of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population of the current research consisted of all fifth-grade female students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Tabriz in the academic year 2021-2022. In this study, 30 students with attention problems (scores higher than 72 in the Connors Parent Questionnaire) were selected as the sample and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group underwent eight training sessions, four sessions per week, each for 30 minutes, using the Gagne’s training model while the control group did not receive any training. It should be mentioned that the computer version of the selective and divided attention and working memory tests were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and SPSS 22 software. The results showed that Gagne’s model of instructional design is effective in increasing divided attention (P <0.048), selective attention (P <0.018), reducing reaction time (P <0.009), and increasing working memory capacity (P <0.047) in students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Therefore, it is suggested that the content of courses requiring great attention and concentration be designed using Gagne’s model of instructional design and presented to students in order to increase the amount of divided attention , selective attention and working memory capacity and reduce reaction time.


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