Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, Volume 3, Issue 12, Winter 2021 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Towards a Consensual Definition of Learning: Insights from the Aristotelian Philosophy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۶۷
What is learning after all? Being the cornerstone of educational psychology, this question has not lost its appeal since there still is no consensus over it. What makes providing a careful definition of learning important is that such definitions carry important pedagogical implications which might not be equally beneficial. This theoretical paper, therefore, has tried to define learning by a novel interdisciplinary approach through connecting educational psychology to philosophy. It has started with the dilemma of a lack of consensus over the definition of definition itself and the necessity for holding a theory of definition. Consequently, Aristotle’s definition theory has been chosen. To be impartial, it has been contrasted with that adopted by Karl Popper- Aristotle’s major critic. Then, mainstream leaning definitions have been investigated. Their inadequacy has been attributed to their non-adherence to a tenable definition theory. The paper recommends a framework for learning definition studies established by adopting Aristotle’s definition theory and other points discussed. Such a framework constitutes guidelines for future studies. These guidelines give future definition studies direction and coherence and allow us to move away from idiosyncrasies reflecting personal bias and, as such, they can direct us towards developing a consensual definition.

Determining the Effectiveness of Distance Teaching Model Based on the Constructivism approach on Learning Performance, Satisfaction and Attitude of Payam-e- Noor University Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۸ تعداد دانلود : ۹۶
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of web-based distance learning model in the context of a constructivist learning approach on learning performance, satisfaction and attitude of Payame Noor Sardasht students. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design. The statistical population of the study included all students of Payame Noor University of Sardasht who selected 45 people as the research sample, using Morgan table and cluster sampling method. Of these,15 students were assigned to conventional distance education group, 15 to the distance education group based on reproductive learning, and 15 to the project-based group. Data collection tools included a teacher-made test to measure learning performance as well as a researcher-made satisfaction and attitude questionnaire that the content validity of the teacher-made test was reviewed and approved by professors. And its reliability through splitting method was 82% in pre-test and 85% in post-test using Spearman-Brown formula. The content validity of the satisfaction questionnaire and the attitude questionnaire were reviewed and approved by experts and the reliability of the satisfaction questionnaire was 84% and the attitude questionnaire was 80% using Cronbach’s alpha. Data analysis was performed using inferential statistics and one-way analysis of variance. Emphasizing the research findings, it can be claimed that both web-based distance learning models have a positive effect on students learning, satisfaction and attitude. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that these two educational models (project-based learning and reproductive learning) have a great impact on increasing students’ learning performance, satisfaction and attitude.

Effectiveness of Flipped Teaching and Problem-Solving Methods on Problem-Solving Ability and Sense of Responsibility among Female High School Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۱ تعداد دانلود : ۹۰
Identifying the contributors to students’ academic performance and progress creates an approach for planning, developing, and perfecting educational programs. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of flipped teaching and problem-solving methods on the sense of responsibility and problem-solving ability in mathematics among female high school students in Ahvaz. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test and post-test design and a control group. The statistical population included all female high school students in Ahvaz in 2019. Using the convenience sampling method, 75 students were selected and randomly divided into two experimental groups (flipped teaching and problem-solving method) and a control group (n= 25 per group). The control group received the traditional teaching method. The research instruments included the Responsibility Questionnaire and Problem-Solving Style Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in productive and unproductive problem-solving styles among the students (p < 0.01). Also, the flipped teaching and problem-solving methods increased the sense of responsibility in the students, compared to the traditional method. According to the results, the effectiveness of flipped teaching was more effective compared to problem-solving methods on the productive and unproductive problem-solving styles and sense of responsibility. Consequently, the flipped teaching and problem-solving methods can be used to promote problem-solving styles and a sense of responsibility among students.

Visually-mediated Instruction of Lexical Collocations: The Role of Involvement Load and Task Orientation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۹ تعداد دانلود : ۸۴
The present study aimed to probe the impact of visual scaffolding using input and output-oriented tasks with different levels of involvement load on Iranian EFL learners' comprehension and production of lexical collocations. For this purpose, 180 male and female intermediate EFL learners were selected and assigned to six experimental groups. Three input-oriented tasks of True-false (load = 1), Matching (load = 2), Multiple-choice (load = 3), and three output-oriented tasks of Short-response (load = 1), Fill-in-the-blanks (load = 2), Sentence formation (load = 3) were developed. All the experimental groups were scaffolded through visual cues. At the end of treatment period, two posttests- a 40-item multiple-choice test and 40-item Fill-in-the-blanks test- were administered to assess the participants' comprehension and production of lexical collocations. To analyze the data, two separate one-way MANOVA procedures were used. The results revealed that visual cues were effective on learners’ collocational achievement. The results also indicated that the output-oriented tasks had a significant positive effect on the comprehension and production of lexical collocations. In addition, tasks with higher involvement load indices were more effective on the comprehension and production of lexical collocations. These finding can have significant pedagogical as well as theoretical implications.

A Case Study of Iranian Physics Education Students’ Understanding of the Nature of Science(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۸
This paper studied Iranian Physics education students’ understanding of the nature of science. The research is descriptive and was conducted through a survey study method. The sample of our study consisted of 94 students of Physics education in the second and third year of university. They were selected through random sampling from four classes at Isfahan University and Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University in Iran. For this purpose, 24 statements of the SUSSI questionnaire (Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry) were translated into Farsi. The statements were randomly arranged to form a new questionnaire. The validity of the new questionnaire was examined and approved and the Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was calculated as 0.738. In the data analysis phase, the mean score of each statement was calculated using the frequency and the numerical value of each response. The score of each component of the nature of science was determined by averaging the scores of the statements related to that component. The average score of each component expresses the formal or naïve or transitional view regarding that component. According to the results, while our subjects’ attitude to observation and deduction conformed to international standards of science education, they had some misunderstandings regarding the other components of scientific inquiry. As physics education students will become teachers and contribute to the future generation's view of science, it would be better to incorporate more educational activities into teacher education programs with the aim of improving the trainees’ conception of science.

Short-Block Instruction Versus Long-Block Instruction: Impact on Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۷۰
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of 2 modes of instruction (Short-block versus Long-block) on Iranian EFL learners' reading motivation and reading attitude. For this study, 60 pre-intermediate level students who were studying in an English language institute in Ahvaz were selected. They took part in a homogeneity test (OQPT) to determine their homogeneity level. Then they were randomly divided into two groups, 30 learners each included, namely short-block instruction group and long-block instruction group. Then the two groups were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as the pre-test before treatment to determine the participants’ reading motivation and reading attitude. During the eleven-session treatment, the long-block group was taught the reading comprehension in an intensive 75-minute session, while the short-block group was taught in three short sessions (twenty-five- minute session). After the treatment sessions, the participants were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as a posttest. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and one-samples t-tests and the findings showed a significant difference between the groups. The short-block group outperformed the other groups in both reading motivation and reading attitude post-test. Implications of this study could be a hint for both EFL teachers and learners that teaching through short-block instruction is more effective than long-block instruction in teaching reading comprehension.

Characteristics and Design Elements of Open Educational Space based on Social Trust, Social Learning and Interaction from Professionals’ Point of View(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۰
The present study, based on the promotion of social trust and social interactions, aims at providing a number of guidelines for the design of children’s open learning spaces. An exploratory research is conducted based on both qualitative-quantitative methods. At the primer part of the research which is the focus of this article a qualitative method is applied, using three rounds of Delphi. Consequently, professionals were interviewed in an unstructured way in the field of landscape architecture and social psychology. Then, with the techniques of open and axial coding the content table is created to manage questionnaires. Network sampling method (snowball) on the sample size of 10 professionals is used. The data were analyzed using Q factor analysis and four factors were recognized. The most affecting elements on the social trust in process of learning in open primary school spaces are consist of; social, design, physical spaces and environmental psychology dimensions.