The study of the role of some Western-affiliated factors, especially the colonial identities in the Persian Gulf in the imposed war against Iran, based on the occurrence and continuation of this war reflects the inadequacies of British colonial heritage in the periphery of Iran. The slogan of independence from the East and the West and the reaction of the sheiks of the Persian Gulf region showed the extent of their reliance on supra-regional powers. This is the basis of the behavior of some of Iran's neighbors towards the slogans of independence and freedom of the Islamic Revolution. Therefore, the behavior and performance of the sheikhdoms of the Persian Gulf during the imposed war indicated their connection with Western colonialism.This article seeks to answer the basic question of the role of the colonial identity of the Persian Gulf sheikhdoms in their behavior and action in the face of war by examining historical documents and based on the method of library studies and analytical methods and by explaining the historical identity of the Persian Gulf sheikhdoms. Has it been imposed on Iran for eight years? The results of this study indicate that the requirements of historical and political identity have played a decisive role in the degree of support or opposition of this sheikhdom to independent currents based on indigenous and Islamic identity and this is the basis for their efforts to strike. Hitting the interests of Iranian revolutionaries in the form of imposed war.
Elucidation of Pattern of People's Participation in Economic Support and Providing Manpower in the Context of the Imposed War and Western Sanctions
Any political unit's development, strength, and subsistence, especially in critical situations, rely on people's participation and social resources. Similarly, in costly and threatening crises like war, reliance on the masses and their responsibility leads to social advancement and solutions to state problems. The main question of the present article is ‘whether popular participation in the imposed war and Western sanctions could be a pattern for solving the country's future problems?’ People's presence and participation have been of most crucial factors of victory, persistence, and maintenance of the Islamic Revolution of Iran. The findings declare that although we can find examples of this kind of national partnership in some nations, Iranians' successful model of unity and participation during the eight years of unequal war and sanctions is unique. Using this model can lead to the solidarity of the government and nation in rapid development and ensure the country's progress in the future. The study employs a library-research method for data collection in a descriptive-analytical approach.
One of the important and fundamental issues that can be raised and used as an effective management model for officials and managers of today's society is to identify and explain the strategic management and strategic thinking of Imam Khomeini during the imposed war. To this end, this study seeks to answer the fundamental question of what are the important managerial characteristics in the Imam's biography and behavior during the imposed war? The research claim emphasizes that Imam Khomeini's managerial characteristics were based on his personal and organizational behavior and behavior based on Islamic values. Also, the purpose of research is to design and explain an efficient model of Imam Khomeini's management strategies and model its behavior for the country's managers. The research findings also show that Imam Khomeini's leadership and management model in the imposed war can be identified and explained in a combined way based on three levels: individual (personality), behavioral and organizational. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the method of extracting information data will be documentary and library.The research findings also show that Imam Khomeini's leadership and management model in the imposed war can be identified and explained in a combined way based on three levels: individual (personality), behavioral and organizational. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the method of extracting information data will be documentary and library.
The Islamic Revolution victory of Iran in February 1979 has been the source of significant changes in the region and the world and has had a tremendous international impact. Concepts such as the revolution exportation from the beginning of the revolution became the strategy of the Islamic Republic. Undoubtedly, the eight-year Iran-Iraq war had an impact on this policy. The present study aimed to express the effect of these imposed factors on exporting the revolution based on a theoretical framework on the theory of Hagerstrand's diffusion and examining the impact of the imposed war at the domestic and international levels. Based on the results, in contrast to the Islamic Revolution, this influence for governments, especially those that consider it a destructive factor for their government, is prolonged or stopped. And the imposed war became a factor for governments' resistance against the revolution exportation. In contrast, the revolution values have particular importance to the nations that noticed the justice-seeking and anti-arrogance of this revolution. Defense and resistance in the imposed war symbolize oppressed nations' resistance against global arrogance as a desirable pattern of behavior. The primary questions are ‘What effects did the imposed war have on the future of Iran?’ ‘Did these effects play a positive and accelerating or negative and deterrent role in the export of the Islamic Revolution?’ According to the hypothesis, some influences had a deterrent role in exporting the Islamic Revolution by those conditions. They caused the change of idealistic to realistic views. On the other hand, the Iranian nation's voice was a symbol of the government defending the oppressed, so it has caused the export of more and more values of this revolution.
Simultaneously with the Islamic Revolution victory, the Iranian people, by denying the previous value system, sought the Islamic culture themes as the new social capital of the country and its expansion from personality systems to various structures of society. The richness of this capital will give the community additional soft power that its importance is equal to hard power. The present study aimed to explain social capital and its impact on soft power and evaluate the country's situation during the holy defense to use social capital resources as a powerful defense against enemies. The descriptive method uses a documentary (library) study on the indicators of productive resources and conservation elements and dissemination of social capital. It then collected data and comparative evaluation of these indicators' status in the holy defense. The mechanism of social capital's impact on the soft power amount depends on the resources such as education and science, religion and ideology, civic institutions, and the media. After the Islamic Revolution, the data show their quantitative and qualitative growth to promote soft power during the holy defense. The results indicated that after the Islamic Revolution, despite the significant dependence on software and hardware resources of Western countries, Iranian society, by using the factor of religious ideological’s beliefs to promote its power against foreigners in the holy defense to gain a lot. These beliefs enlightened the people and fought against the corruption of the Pahlavi regime. It used from its progressive basis to respect science and education, religious value resources, and cooperation of the ummah to reform society and spread it, use the best communication methods, and convey meanings to people.
Tactical deterrence was one of the main bases of Iran's defense strategy during the war. Iran used mechanisms of tactical action, optimization of human resources, and maximization of instrumental capabilities to counter enemy threats. The formation of the Iraq-Iran war in September 1980 indicated that revolutionary countries were more exposed to regional and international conflicts than any other political entity. The present study aimed to analyze tactical deterrence, which has social, tactical, and practical indicators and signs. Iran tried to create the necessary field for optimizing the power equation. The primary basis of Iran's tactical deterrence in the war was: arms purchases, diversification of instrumental power sources, and cooperation with marginal actors. Therefore, the imposed war process has been a structural reaction by the great powers. Tactical deterrence has been Iran's organized effort to balance power against Iraq's aggression. The coalition of the Western world countries and the great forces to confront Iran was a sign of the world system's efforts to limit Iran's power. Since any structure tends to be balanced, revolutionary governments form imbalances in international politics. The primary question of this study is ‘What tactical and practical mechanisms has Iran used in the war against threats?’ The hypothesis is that Iran has used deterrent tactical action mechanisms to counter enemy threats and maximize its social role in socializing war. The present study has used the structuralism approach. In the structuralism approach, the imposed war has reflected the agreement of the great powers and regional actors.
The significance of the role of interest groups in domestic politics in the US and EU countries is an undeniable fact. Lobbies, as a kind of interest group, play a crucial role in shaping the foreign policy of western countries. Israeli lobbies increasingly seek to transform the US and EU approaches in the Middle East in favor of Israel interests. In cooperation with their American counterparts, Israeli lobbyists struggle to strengthen their political presence in the EU states to ensure the achievement of their political aims. This article tries to explore these lobbyists’ objectives and activities in recent years across Europe. Findings indicate that they are committed to fighting anti-Semitism in Europe, to inhibit the growth of the BDS movement, to deviate the peace process in the Middle East from its normal path and toward Israel interests, to persuade EU leaders to take strict measures against Iran and the last, but not the least, to delegitimize Iran and Hezbollah in EU institutions and provoke EU states to recognize Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. This article basically seeks to explore the reasons behind Israelis’ efforts to establish Jewish lobbies across Europe. . To answer the research question, a case study of Israeli lobbies, established by influential Jews in the EU countries, is conducted.
Non-physical Combat Ability Components of Iranian Islamic Revolution Armed Forces with Emphasis on the View of Imam Sajjad (a.s.) in the Prayer of "MARZDARAN"
The security of any country depends primarily on the strength of its military forces. If safety is established at the borders, it will be possible to create the necessary security in other areas. On the other hand, according to experts, since the Iranian Islamic Revolution (1979) was involved in an imposed an unequal war, the non-revolutionary military knowledge in this war did not last more than three months. Instead, it affected other factors in this issue and the victory of the Islamic Revolution armed forces, referred to as "Non-Physical Factors of Combat Ability." The main question is, 'what are these factors', and 'what function did they play in creating the Islamic Revolution armed forces' combat ability?' The present study aimed, with descriptive-analytical and content analysis method based on library resources, to answer the above question and explain the non-physical components are affecting the combat ability of the Islamic Revolution armed forces by emphasizing Imam Sajjad's (a.s.) view in the twenty-seventh prayer of Sahifa Sajjadiah and the study of their function in creating the fighting power of these forces. Based on the research conducted, the mentioned factors are faith and will, knowledge and insight, prudence and solution, empathy and compassion, patience and perseverance, occult help, and martyrdom.
The Model of Jihadi Management in the Sacred Defense and Implications for Its Communicative Representation
In today's cultural theories, the term "Representation" refers to the relationship between an artwork and the reality considered external to the artwork. The intended fact in this study is "Jihadi Management" in the sacred defense. Applying some managerial experiences simultaneously with the formation of the Islamic Revolution and the observation of tangible and significant achievements of these experiences, especially the experience of the sacred defense, has confirmed the existence of entirely indigenous (Islamic-Iranian) management models in Iran. One prominent example of such a management model is the theory or style of jihadi management. The present study is conducted to answer two main questions: First, ‘What are the characteristics of a jihadi management model based on the experience of sacred defense?’ And second, ‘What are the implications of representing this model from the perspective of communication science?’ In this regard, researchers based on a qualitative approach and using the "Content Analysis" research strategy have purposefully collected textual data and conducted semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate the formation of a conceptual model of jihadi management of holy defense under three categories of central themes of "Structural Dimension" (including four sub-themes), "Behavioral Dimension" (including six sub-themes) and "Contextual Dimension" (including five sub-themes) based on statements of the interviewees. Finally, the implications of representation of this model from the perspective of communication science are presented in three sections: the content, method, and tools of representation.
The Unique Characteristic of the Sacred Defense Compared to Other Wars in Iran and the World Emphasizing the Civilization Defense Characteristics
As a treasure of revolutionary thinking, morale, and behavior in defense of religion and the country, the Sacred Defense, has a similarity and distinction function to distinguish insiders (friends) from outsiders (enemies), which has given it a unique feature. The Sacred Defense is the answer to who, what, and how we are in defensive arenas, telling the boundary between the civilization friends and enemies of the revolution and Iran. This article aims to explain the unique aspects of the Sacred Defense towards other Iranian and world wars in three cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions by using descriptive-analytical methods. The results show that in the mental dimension, revolutionary Islam and the theory of Velayat-e Faqih and convention of the Leadership of Velayat-e Faqih in the war with the title of "Commander-in-chief" is the exclusive feature of the Sacred Defense. In the affective dimension, the consolidation of the Islamic-Iranian identity bond is another unique feature that has created general mobilization in defense of the religion and land of Iran as a rendezvous for Velayi Islam. In the behavioral dimension, the accelerated growth of sacrificial behaviors, jihad, martyrdom, resistance, trust (in God), self-sacrifice, sincerity, etc., is another unique feature that has highlighted the Sacred Defense in the form of a civilization defense in Iran's history. Therefore, the Sacred Defense was a "Civilization Defense against the Enemies of the Civilization," which brought the enemies to their knees with an entire trilogy: ‘Velayi leadership based on the admission of Velayat-e Faqih’, ‘mass mobilization based on Islamic and Iranian identity bond’, and ‘jihad and sacrifice based on the belief in the divine salvation.
Townscapes of War Capital; Prioritizing Memorable Townscapes in Khorramshahr from the Dwellers’ Point of View
Townscape is an essential element in creating collective memories (i.e., memories people collectively share as a group in a city, affecting the identity of that city, the cultural continuity, and the relationship between generations). One of the collective memories -that have happened in different countries- in the war. A war that is fought to defend the homeland and preserve the identity, culture, and honor of a country is part of the valuable memories of a society. In various western cities, including Berlin, Warsaw, and Moscow, the scenes of the collective memories of the war have been reconstructed. Still, in Iran, although fought in an imposed war, these scenes have been less regarded. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the views of Khorramshahr dwellers about the impact of war townscape on the revival of memories of that period. It seeks to find priorities in townscape criteria on war-based memories. With the descriptive-analytical method, the present study aimed to express the applicable standards of the reminiscent townscape and analyze them in Berlin, Moscow, and Warsaw(in World War II). Finally, to study the townscape impact on younger inhabitants’ war idea -who has not experienced that war, the townscapes have been prioritized using a questionnaire analysis. The results indicated that battle scars on walls and beheaded palms have the priority and the Grand Mosque as the symbol of the city function has the second. The title, Bloody City , has the third one according to the dwellers’ point of view. Finally, some solutions have been suggested to improve the townscape of Khorramshahr, emphasizing collective memories of the war.