The European countries have adopted a particular policy and manner to conflict with Muslims in their countries. These policies are classified into three behavioral patterns of British, German, and French. The British model is cultural pluralism, the German is Muslims’ integration in German society, and the French are melting melt pot. In their belief, Muslims must be dissolved in French culture and eliminated their religious identity. Other European countries follow one of these three models. The present study aimed to answer the following questions: ‘What effect have these strategies and patterns had on the living conditions of Muslims and the whole society of that country?’ ‘Were the approaches a plan or practical?’ ‘Which policies have been more successful quickly or strictly in confronting Islamic extremism (Takfiri terrorism) and Secular extremism (European terrorism)?’ ‘What was the practical result of these approaches in the Western European countries' social and security conditions?’
Politics and the political system have the best opportunity to fulfil justice in achieving lofty human ideals. Therefore, complete justice in various dimensions is possible through the policy of justice and its rulers. With the descriptive-analytical method, the present study aimed to analyze and identify the existing relationships between politics and justice in Imam Khamenei's political jurisprudential thought. To this aim, investigated the role of politics in the fulfillment of social justice, political requirements of justice, politics, and obstacles to the realization of justice, and statements expressing the relationship between justice and politics. The results indicated that in Imam Khamenei's political jurisprudential thought, justice has a privileged position. So, it is the basic principles of his political jurisprudence, the essence of virtue, and a strategy to achieve high human goals and standards. As the most crucial dimension of the divine caliph of humans, politics or responsibility of his collective destiny caused the manifestation of justice realization and continuation. Justice is achieved through an open political system, that is, a system based on divine laws, and through principles such as just law, enforcement, oversight, public participation, and social balance.
The colonialists exploit the rights of the oppressed with ambition. To achieve their ideals, they take actions to better prevent its performance with awareness of its function. Allameh Mughniyeh is a contemporary religious thinker who is very concerned about anti-oppression. He refers to this subject in his many speeches and writings. To understand the function of colonialism, we should analyze and evaluate all of Mughniyeh's topics mentioned in this field to determine what function colonialism has in his mind. So can know better colonialists and ambitious. The present study aimed to, with the descriptive-analytical method, analyze all the content of colonialism and America, which is the symbol of modern colonialism, and Zionism, which is the stooge of America. The results indicated that there are three general functions for colonization. First is the transmutation of words that colonialism changes the nature of some words such as reformist, science, religion, and capitalism to achieve its interests. Then, colonialism uses psychological and physical tools of war to achieve its goals. Finally, is the existence of mercenaries and the polarization of society.
The Islamic Revolution of Iran is known as one of the superb phenomena of the twentieth century, the essential political-religious revolution globally, which has left various effects at the national and international levels. Shia ideology is a crucial element in the etymology of this revolution. One of the basic principles of this ideology is political jurisprudence that has a two-way relationship with the Islamic Revolution. With a qualitative method and documentary study, the present study aimed to analyze the interaction between Shia political jurisprudence and the Islamic Revolution. To this aim, we reviewed documents and library resources and extracted the required data in research files. The results indicated that, on the one hand, Imam Khomeini, as the founder of the Islamic Revolution, by using Shia political jurisprudence, has founded and promoted this revolution. On the other hand, the Islamic Revolution has significantly impacted the development and promotion of Shia political jurisprudence by creating innovative spaces and arenas. This interrelationship is also associated with obstacles, challenges, and harms that the present article has partly addressed.
The Bahraini crisis has particular geopolitical importance for regional and trans-regional powers regarding the limited ability of domestic actors and the interests of foreign actors in it. The present study aimed to examine the crisis in Bahrain and the religious and geopolitical conflicts between Iran and Saudi Arabia. To this aim, investigated the causes and roots of the conflicting approaches of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Saudi Arabia to the Bahrain crisis using the theoretical framework of constructivism and descriptive-analytical research methods. The results indicated that these conflicts began before the Islamic Revolution of Iran and culminated in the recent uprising of the Bahraini people. Iran and Saudi Arabia are two prominent regional actors in the Bahraini crisis that pursue active but conflicting approaches. This contradictory approach has caused severe tensions in Saudi Arabia's relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran.
With the help of Islamic principles, it is possible to critique the mainstream and the dominant paradigm in International Relations. Still, the capability of the Islamic tenets is higher and does not remain at the level of rejection and criticism. Instead, it can provide alternatives by having specific ontological, anthropological, and epistemological foundations. The present study enumerates theoretical foundations and assumptions of the dominant paradigm in international relations. It describes four critical perspectives and then refers to a distinct view in the Islamic approach. After that, address this fundamental question: 'where is the turning-point of this approach for alternative presentation and construction of an alternative order in International Relation?’ The results indicated that according to the Meta-theoretical foundations of the dominant paradigm, they had created contradictory concepts. They are including material/meaning, nature/metaphysics, and reality/truth but by prioritizing truth (over material objectivity), those dualities become invalid and new dualities are drawn, such as the weak / the arrogant, which can design an alternative to the current dominant system. According to these principles, the effects of originality on the necessity and the priority of creature on nature is emphasized, and truth-seeking generally replaces materialism.