ELECTRE TRI is the most applicable and developed outranking based classification method in the field of MCDA. By including a large number of parameters, it provides a huge amount of information on criteria which enriches decision making process, although calculation of these large number of parameters is very time consuming and difficult task. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a new method called NSGA-ELECTRE, by which the NSGA- algorithm learns ELECTRE TRI and elicits its parameters through an evolutionary process. The proposed method contributes to the literature by utilizing a pair of conflicting objective functions including Type I errors and Type II errors instead of using a single criterion named “classification accuracy” which used frequently in the related works. The proposed bi-objective method is applied to six known credit risk datasets. The NRGA model is used as a benchmark for validation. Computational results indicate outstanding performance of the NSGA-ELECTRE method.
One of the most necessary operations in humanitarian logistics is the distribution of relief goods to the population in disaster areas. When a disaster occurs, some parts of the distribution infrastructure may be damaged and consequently make it impossible to reach all the demand nodes and delivering the relief goods. In this study, we focus on the planning of infrastructure recovery efforts in post-disaster response. The problem is the scheduling of the emergency repair of a network that has been damaged by a disaster. The objective is to maximize network accessibility for all demand nodes in order to deliver relief goods to them. We adopt a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the problem when more than one crew group is available. Our numerical analysis of the solution shows the performance of the algorithm. We, also, compare our results with some similar studies to indicate the differences between one and multi-crew scheduling.
Given the existing economic situation, the role of management accounting in Iranian economic enterprises has been quite evident in the last two decades. Considering the economic crises, it is necessary to examine the indicators of adoption of management accounting innovations in times of economic crisis. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the indicators of adoption of management accounting innovations in times of economic crisis and to present a model for its structural equations. The research was conducted in two parts: qualitative and quantitative. In the qualitative section, data analysis was performed by Delphi method and using interviews with 10 experts, including managers and deputies of the management accounting department of accepted companies and university professors. The analysis was conducted three parts: open coding, axial coding and selective coding and finally Delphi method. Based on the results obtained in the qualitative section, 103 sub-components and 6 main components were identified. The main components are: 1) economic crises; 2) economic indicators; 3) organizational culture; 4) information and communication technology; 5) Management indicators and 6) Crisis control indicators. In the quantitative section, using the indicators identified in the qualitative section, a questionnaire was designed and provided to a statistical sample including 180 people, managers and deputies of the management accounting department. Finally, the questionnaires were analyzed by PLS structural equation modelling. The results showed that economic indicators ,organizational culture, information and communication technology , and crisis control indicators as indicators of adoption of management accounting innovations in times of crisis.
Business Intelligence Technology in Research Organizations (Case Study of Academic Institutes in Tehran)
Business Intelligence (BI) covers the tasks of collecting, processing, and analyzing large volumes of data. This includes internal systems and external resources, utilizing advanced high-speed analytics and forecasting tools enabling organizations to achieve organizational goals in a timely manner affording immediate decision-making. The main purpose of BI is to help companies improve their performance in the turbulent environment of business and enhance their competitive advantage in this immense data age. Research organizations need integrated information technologies such as business intelligence, perhaps more so than commercial companies need, given the highly competitive environment and increasing progress of various disciplines. The development of such a system, like other organizational information systems, requires the adoption of technology by its users. Various models, including behavioral models, have identified the acceptance factors of information technologies. The purpose of this study is the Interpretive Structural Modeling of factors affecting the adoption of business intelligence technology in research organizations. ISM is a systematic and interpretive process as it is formed based on group judgment and is structured and complemented by common relationships, and finally, depicts the overall structure of several complex elements in a graph model. The sample used in this study was experts of academic research institutes in Tehran. According to the findings, 20 main acceptance factors were modeled in four levels based on interactions between the categories of individual, organizational, and technological criteria.
Coordinating the Two-Echelon Supply Chain of Perishable Products with Uncertain Demand: A Game-Theoretic Approach
This study examines the ability of contracts as one of the supply chain coordination mechanisms under competitive conditions. In this study, a two-tier supply chain model with two manufacturers and two retailers is considered to develop a competitive structure when demands are uncertain. The supply chain demand is random and depends on the price of the products. Moreover, the products manufactured by market manufacturers are replaceable. Therefore, the main competitive factor is the order decisions, and due to the nature of the demand, deciding on pricing and ordering is necessary. Each retailer is faced with the issue of determining the prices of goods from two manufacturers, which consequently forms a competitive ground between retailers. Therefore, the two-tiered supply chain model is based on the contract price and is optimized, followed by coordinated analysis. The result of the study shows that to maintain the structure of the supply chain, the manufacturer can increase its wholesale price to the extent that the retailer has zero profit. The lowest price of wholesalers is equal to the cost of production, and the wholesale price can be increased to the point where the retailer's profit is zero.
A Comprehensive Model for the Assignment of Unfinished Development Projects with their Economic Approach: Qualitative Study
The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model for the assignment of unfinished construction projects with their economicization approach. This research was conducted qualitatively with the data theory of the foundation. For this purpose, a researcher with 26 experts and specialists in the fields of Management and Planning Organization, the Majlis Research Center and the provincial civil affairs department coordination that purposive sampling (snowball) were interviewed. The text of the interviews was uploaded in MAXQDA10 software and then open coded using the software. After extracting the codes, the main categories were extracted using axial coding. Then, by discovering the relationship between the central categories, and then by performing selective coding and identifying the central category, the desired model based on data theory is presented as a paradigm. The results of data analysis in the form of a template are: Underlying conditions (classification of unfinished construction projects, their economization and assignment of unfinished construction projects), causal conditions (the first step is to control and limit the approval of new projects, the next step is to classify and present a schedule, economic For all incomplete development projects and transfers based on the existing legal instruments of transfers and participation), intervention conditions (lack of proper use of the capacities of existing laws and failure to specify the general policy law of the forty-fourth principle in the transfer of projects, lack of Effective entry of the Privatization Organization due to the difficulties of assigning development projects to companies, lack of accurate information on development projects of state-owned companies and provincial projects, between the systemic nature of the issue and the unclear method of pricing projects), strategies (codification of legal prerequisites, preparation of regulations and systems related to the transfer, preparation of a list of the most probable cases of transferable projects, coordination of responsible bodies due to the inter-institutional nature of the issue and determination of prices through auctions, negotiations, etc. Depending on the application of each method) and the outcome (creating sufficient motivation for managers, operators and current stakeholders of projects and projects by creating a method of returning the saved resources from investment with the participation of the private sector, aggregation and refinement A set of relevant and effective regulations and the availability of all laws and regulations governing private sector investment in development projects, the dissemination of information on all projects in the electronic system and public access to all investable applications as well as contract terms and all subsequent contract developments. The entire duration of the construction, operation or transfer, full transparency of the transfer process to reduce rent-seeking behaviors and pave the way for private sector activity).
Providing a Mathematical Model of Selecting a Production Supplier in the Supply Chain with the Approach of Bee Algorithm and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm
Selecting suitable suppliers and assigning orders to them, is one of the most important strategic supply chain management activities. Therefore, first, in this research, a mathematical model for choosing the supplier in the supply chain in the framework of the operational research methods was proposed. Linear programming model with consideration of purchase costs and transportation costs with the meta-heuristic bee algorithm approach using MATLAB software was solved and analyzed. Therefore, the research method is applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of method is a descriptive mathematical type that was implemented in the form of a library and field studies. Information gathering tools, such as documentation tools, interviews with experts and production managers were used in relation to production. According to the nature of the research, which is modeling and solving by the algorithm, to determine the sample size were selected by cluster sampling method and random sampling method. Then to validate the mathematical model, lingo and Winqsb software was used, the solution obtained by both software, which is the optimal answer and optimal objective function, indicates the validity of the mathematical model.
Due to the dynamic nature of technology, capabilities related to production technologies that have been created for manufacturing new and unique products are constantly changing. Therefore it is essential to monitor the processes and techniques used to understand whether the production of a product fits future circumstances. Leaders of organizations must decide when to switch to a new technology, to maintain and increase competitive advantages. In such conditions, evaluating the maturity of the considered technologies is essential. This article with a conclusive view at various factors affecting the maturity of technology, examines the structuring of the factors affecting the aforementioned maturity. This model is based on Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) methodology. The ISM approach enables groups and individuals to identify complex relationships among a multitude of elements in a complex decision-making situation; and it works as a tool for organizing and directing complexities of relationships between variables. This technique starts with identifying variables that are related to the issue, then the contextual relations between the variables are determined using the knowledge and experience of the experts; finally, the multilevel structural model is formed.
Purpose of this study is to provide a structured model for the development of social entrepreneurship in the higher education system of humanities post-graduate. According to the research purpose, theoretical framework was established with three main dimensions including needs and incentives, features and measures and the consequences of social entrepreneurship development. This model has been led to interview protocol. Then researcher done 10 interviews with experts by telephone, Skype and face-to-face methods. These interviews were then coding and recoding and the concepts and categories were extracted. Then, the relationships between the categories were adjusted based on the model derived from the literature. Then with using the confirmatory factor analysis and ISM and SEM techniques, the dimensions and components of the designed model were confirmed and structured.
A Conceptual Model for Evaluation the Impact Factors Affecting Organizational Performance in Supply Chain
In today's competitive world, competition from the level of companies is drawn to the competition between their supply chain. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a suitable model for identifying and ranking effective factors and key indicators related to the performance of the organization in the supply chain of Saipa Company . The research method is objective and applied in terms of method, descriptive and correlation. The research tool was in the qualitative section, interview and in the quantitative section, a questionnaire. Data analysis in the qualitative section was used to identify the dimensions of the variables with the help of the industry's elite and through the analysis of the fuzzy Delphi, which ultimately resulted in 179 components in four factors: " T echnology C apability", " I nnovation C apability", " C ompetitive A dvantage" and " Organizational P erformance" is identified. Fuzzy hierarchy analysis was used to rank the identified factors . In the quantitative section, structural equations were used to fit the model. In this regard, after reviewing theoretical literature and drawing up the original model, the research questionnaire was distributed along with the dimensions of 350 experts and managers of the Saipa group and supply chain. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by factor load method, Cronbach's A lpha and composite reliability coefficient (CR) and its validity was confirmed by convergent validity (AVE) and divergent validity. To evaluate the structural model, three coefficients of determination (R 2 ), index (Q 2 ) and statistics (GOF) have been used . The dimensions of each of the variables and the prioritization of the dimensions of the variables were determined. The results were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Software (SPLS) and the relationship between the factors was obtained and the proposed model was confirmed using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques . According to the results of the verifiable analysis of this research model, it was found that the performance of the organization depends on the dimensions of " I nnovation C apability", " T echnology C apability" and " C ompetitive A dvantage" in the supply chain, and has a positive and significant effect .