Purpose- Among the most important challenges in the agricultural sector are lack of optimal use of production factors, multiplicity of parcels and dispersion of agricultural lands. Land consolidation is one of the effective solutions which can change the size of fields and organize them to increase production, especially in paddy fields, which facilities agricultural development and ultimately achieves a sustainable livelihood in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the success rate of paddy field consolidation project through the study of a group of farmers who are included in the land consolidation project. Design/Method/Approach- The population of the study consisted of 285 farmers from 11 villages of Choobar rural district in Shaft County who have been selected by regular sampling method. To collect the data, library and survey methods (observation and questionnaires) have been used. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of the research tools, and in the analytical part, single-sample t-test was used to evaluate the success rate of the project in Choobar rural district; To investigate the relationship between land consolidation project and improvement in economic indicators of rural households, initially Spearman correlation coefficient was used, then simple regression test and coefficient of determination R2 were used to measure the effectiveness of the project on economic indicators. Finding- The research findings on the level of economic and social dimensions and the assessment of the success rate of the project in Choobar rural district showed the project was moderately to highly successful in the study area. The effects of the project in improving the socio-economic indicators of rural households in Choobar rural district are such that the highest correlations were found between the project and economic indicators in the use of machinery, land infrastructure, productivity, household employment, ease of access to machinery and manpower, income, and investment; At the level of social indicators the highest correlations were respectively found in interpersonal and generalized trust, objective participation, sense of physical security, insurance services, formal participation, conflict reduction and institutional trust. From farmers’ perspective, among the socio-economic indicators, the infrastructure indicator which is created by the government and the use of machinery after the implementation of the project, and the ease of access to machinery and manpower, interpersonal and generalized trust have had the greatest impact on the implementation of the project.
Purpose- Development of the tourism industry in a proper way, followed by the promotion of tourism entrepreneurship, calls for adequate knowledge and understanding of the barriers and problems in this matter. In this regard, the present study tried to evaluate the barriers to the development of tourism entrepreneurship in tourism target villages of Chaldoran County. Design/methodology/approach- The current study is descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method, and applied according to its objectives. The statistical population in this study includes people living in villages targeted for tourism. To study this population, 212 questionnaires were arranged based on the modified Cochran's formula. Information and data were collected in 2018 using library and field studies (observation and completion of a questionnaire). After collecting information through questionnaires using simple random sampling, the data obtained after coding were analyzed by SPSS and Amos softwares applying descriptive and analytical statistical approaches. Findings- The results showed that all the studied factors were effective in the failure of tourism entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, social barriers with a correlation coefficient of 1, physical and economic barriers with a coefficient of 0.91 had the greatest impact on barriers to tourism entrepreneurship in tourism target villages. Practical implications- Rural tourism entrepreneurship, regarding the natural and cultural capacities in the villages, can play an important role in revitalizing the villages, creating employment and income for the people, protecting the natural, historical and cultural heritage, and finally providing integrated and sustainable rural development, because rural tourism is one of the types of tourism whose sustainable form in various economic, social and environmental dimensions, paves the way for achieving sustainable development of local communities.
Purpose- Currently he occurrence of recent droughts in Iran and the severity of its damage indicate the vulnerability of farmers. The economic-environmental damages and the resilience farmers to this incident are evident in diverse ways. Therefore, recognizing the resilience of the population influenced by drought can offer a tool to prevent life-threatening disaster in high-risk areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic resilience of rural households to drought in plain of Kermanshah and answer the following questions. What is the extent of economic resilience of rural households in Mahidasht to drought? What are the most important factors affecting the economic resilience of rural households to drought? Design/methodology/approach- This is an applied research and a descriptive-analytical method along with library analysis and field surveys were adopted for data collection. The statistical population of this study consisted of 5081 households, out of whom 357 samples were selected according to Cochran's formula. Descriptive and inferential statistics (One-sample t-test) and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. Findings- According to the results of t-test, the variables of vulnerability of villagers' property and assets (mean=3.99) and the impact of drought on the value of assets (mean=3.86) gained the highest average in terms of resilience. On the contrary, the two variables of ability to compensate (mean=1.67) and membership in cooperatives and agricultural companies (mean=1.67) had the lowest averages. Moreover, the test results of all four variables of evaluating farmers’ knowledge and awareness indicate a correlation between the independent variables (prevention, preparedness, reconstruction, institutional management) and the dependent variable (economic resilience). Therefore, it can be contended that the economic resilience of Mahidasht is fairly weak.
Purpose- This study aimed at identifying the successful aspects of the LEADER Approach in European countries. Design/methodology/approach- The methodology in this study is a systematic overview. The statistical population of the present research consisted of 30 scientific articles on the LEADER Approach published in different journals during 2000-2017. Findings- The results showed the success cases (items) of the LEADER Approach in European countries can be defined in four general categories contains: economic, social, environmental, and management dimensions. Moreover, among the successes of the LEADER Approach, the economic dimension with a rate of 38.4% has the highest percentage relative to the other dimensions. One factor behind the success of the LEADER to European countries, which is an important guide for rural development programs in Asian countries including Iran, is a very important issue of networking in the rural development process, which has recently been intensely debated in the discussions of academic and executive development spheres in the EU countries. However, the effects of LEADER vary from region to region, so any generalizations between regions are likely to be unreliable. Therefore, it is still difficult to judge its true impact on rural development. Originality/Value- The LEADER Program is one of the performed programs being implemented by European Union countries in the new vision of rural development planning. When the European Union started its new program with a completely new approach, there were a lot of skeptics against the initiative based on local development. LEADER has often been praised as a successful approach to rural development, although its implementation is not without scholarly critiques.
Purpose- Rural tourism, in the perspective of developed economies, is considered as a context-based experience that has a broad range of attractions. Also, it can increase the opportunities to provide services to local communities. Thus, their maintenance has become an integral part of the rural economy. In this regard, the study explored the understanding of rural tourism development in Rudbar County, Guilan province. Design/methodology/approach- This study, in terms of goal is applied-developmental, in terms of paradigm is qualitative, and in terms of method is a grounded theory which is based on an inductive approach. The statistical population consisted of two groups of key rural informants and tourists of Rudbar County. Using a purposive sampling, 18 people were selected by snowball method and data were collected applying in-depth and semi-structured interviews, reaching saturation. To analyze the narratives, three stages of open, axial and selective coding method were used. Findings- Findings showed that the vital commodities of rural tourism in Rudbar are the supply of a mixture of tourism approaches such as ecotourism, agrotourism and participatory approaches such as the view of scenic byways. In the elevated villages near Darfak peak, the commodities are long hiking or cycling alongside Sefidrood River as well as heritage areas. Also, in the development of rural tourism in the study area, the categories of products of the destination, space opportunities of the destination, infrastructure of the destination, cultural support and beliefs of the destination, responsible participation of the destination, cultural acceptance of the destination, marketing for the destination, human capital of the destination, employment in the destination were important. The most important category (core category) was known as "tourism product development policy". Research limitations/implications- Lack of proper access to infrastructures such as mobile coverage accessibility, Internet and accommodation opportunities, frequent cut-offs of tap water in some villages for long hours, and access to tourists and key local informants were among the problems in the way of this study. Practical implications- In order to achieve the development of rural tourism, it is suggested that special attention be paid to the development policy of Guilan tourism product supply in different dimensions. Since most of the incoming tourists to Guilan are nature tourists, increasing the village's service such as improving mobile and Internet access, improving the village's water and electricity quality, travel agency offices and active tour operators in the villages, automobile repair shops, local food restaurants and eco-resorts are vital. Originality / Value- A grounded theory systematically examines phenomena in their natural state in the form of regular steps. In this method, generalization is not the purpose. Instead, the goal is to understand the phenomenon and its various dimensions.
Purpose- Social responsibility for environmental protection at all levels and strata of society is an issue that is explicitly emphasized in paragraph 14 of the General Environmental Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the villagers as the main users of environmental resources are expected to take environmental responsibility without exception. The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify level of responsibility of environmental behaviors of villagers and determine social factors affecting it. Design/methodology/approach- In this research, the framework of social psychology was used and the research method was survey and cross-sectional. The unit of analysis is the rural individuals. The statistical population of the study is all residents of rural areas of Mazandaran province in 1398/2019. The sampling method of multi-stage cluster sampling was used. The number of study villages surveyed was 30 villages and the sample size was 536 people. The data required for the research were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Finding- The results showed that the level of responsible environmental behavior of villagers is at a moderate level. In addition, the results of multivariate analyzes indicate that there is a significant relationship between social psychological factors (religious beliefs, environmental values and environmental knowledge) and responsible behaviors towards the environment. In the final evaluation, it can be said that the modified model of social psychological factors seems a suitable model for studying factors affecting environmental behaviors in rural communities and can be useful as a model for conducting similar research in other rural areas of the country.