Purpose- Rural areas experience various economic and social tensions such as population instability and limited job opportunities, which place villages at risk. Rural tourism can improve the economic activities that increase the population and improve the economy because tourism transforms a fragile economy with dynamic activities that enable the establishment of service enterprises and bring about entrepreneurship opportunities. This study aimed to model the multilateral effects of tourism on rural sustainability. Design/methodology/approach- This research applied the theoretical-pragmatic approach. Data were collected using library and field studies. Field studies are a prominent element in the analysis of results. In this course, the systematic questionnaire was used for the extraction of the field database. Using the Cochran formula, the sample size was estimated 214 people. Furthermore, the interrelationship Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied to analyze the networks of variations. Also, path analysis and partial least squares regression model was adopted to model the interrelationship between the variables observing the systematic nature of the sustainability approach. Findings- Tourism is an accelerating tool in rural permanency. It stimulates the stability of the population, cultural similarities, and promotion of rural culture, which subsequently establish rural sustainability. On the other hand, as land use change is acknowledged as one of the unfavorable consequences of tourism, support for the environmental aspect is mentioned as a necessary factor for sustainability. Tourists should also recognize the eminent function of the environment in rural settlements to ensure that promoting the entire aspect of sustainability results in rural stabilization. Practical implications- Specifically, tourism develops social solidarity through the formation of micro-businesses and particular rural entrepreneurship that directly and indirectly contribute to the expansion of job creation in rural settlements. Also, these mechanisms are involved in producing local capital that strengthens sustainable rural income and livelihood. On the other hand, tourism highlights the significance of the environment, and its protection is essential to the rural sustainability.
The Analysis of Key Factors Influencing the Expansion of Rural Migration with Eemphasis on the Issue of Informal Settlement (Case Study: Shirabad Neighborhood in Zahedan)
Purpose- Informal settlement is largely rooted in migration, particularly influenced by parameters such as poverty, lack of expertise and specialization, type of occupation, cultural conflict, illiteracy, ethnic and cultural identity. Most of the residents of these areas are forced to live in ghettos and slums due to factors such as lack of access to jobs in the city coupled with poverty and lack of specialization. Heterogeneous and dispersed constructions without observance of technical principles and urban planning with narrow, meandering alleys, running sewage in the alleys and unsavory sanitary condition are among the adverse consequences of informal settlement. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the key factors affecting rural migration with emphasis on the issue of informal settlement in Shirabad neighborhood of Zahedan. Design/methodology/approach- The research method is descriptive-analytical and data collection was conducted by a survey. In the first step of the research, a list of primary factors involved in the spread of migration to informal settlements was identified as research variables using existing documents and previous researches. The variables were analyzed based on two local communities (all heads of households in Shirabad neighborhood) and expert questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis in SPSS software as well as cross-impact analysis model in MicMac software were used for the analysis of data. Findings- The results suggested that four key factors of drought and lack of water resources, reduced productivity and devaluation of the agricultural sector, inappropriate infrastructure in rural areas and wage gap between rural and urban areas play a key role in shaping rural migration and intensifying informal settlement.
Process Model of Rural Planning Based on the Experiences of Community-based Development Projects (The 2020s Projects in the Critical Centers of Sistan, Rigan and Jazmourian)
Purpose- The implementation of participatory projects aiming socio-economic empowerment and environmental sustainability is one of the sustainable management strategies in arid rural areas across the world in the recent decades. This study was conducted to answer two questions: What have been the characteristics and achievements of participatory development and community-based projects in rural areas located within the critical centers of Sistan, Jazmourian, and Rigan? How is a process model for rural development planning consistent with the geography of aforementioned areas? Design/methodology/approach- The present study is descriptive-analytical and the research process includes the analysis of the goals and final achievements of participatory plans in Rigan (RFLDL), the progress and development Plan in Ghaleh-Ganj, the Carbon Sequestration plan in Jazmourian and Lashar, the Menarid Project in Sistan, "Village without unemployed" project, SAHAB community-based projects, and ASEMAN project from Barekat Foundation in Sistan region. The required data consisted of the performance statistics of the above-mentioned projects, and the required analysis was conducted on the dat. Finding- Each of these projects has positive achievements in accordance with its short-term goals. Although it is quantitatively desirable, they failed to continue to operate in a regular and stable planning process in rural areas. Execution of a process model for rural development planning requires institutional transformations and the establishment of an integrated facility direction system for the economic infrastructure of rural areas (with a focus on the value chain) and a series of previous and subsequent jobs in each chain. Research limitations/implications- Among the main limitations of reformation in the programs and continuous learning from past experiences are the effort of conductors in charge of implementing rural development projects to indicate the expected achievements by relying on seemingly favorable statistics with false documentation, and the weakness or lack of a public oversight system on the actual achievements of projects. Real decentralization in the country's rural planning system, the establishment of a public oversight system, and a process planning are the best strategies for sustaining local communities.
Factors Affecting Rural Tourism Cluster Development (Case Study: Ashtaran Village, Touyserkan County)
Purpose- Villages are full of new and undiscovered opportunities that can be explored in a timely manner to create opportunities and new businesses for the villagers. In this regard, those approaches are sustainable that, due to changes in technology and the market, constantly assess market and technological needs and provide a more appropriate employment model. To this end, development through business clusters has recently been considered by economic and industrial policies. Design/methodology/approach- The main purpose of the study was to investigate factors affecting rural tourism cluster development via a quantitative approach. The statistical population consisted of two groups of experts in Hamadan province with 21 individuals and 360 rural households. A total of 185 rural households were randomly selected using the Krejcie and Morgan table. This research was an applied research that investigated the contribution of each independent variable in explaining the dependent variable (rural tourism cluster development) using structural equation modeling through Smart PLS6 software. Findings- The results showed that in the structural model of research, the highest effect (β=0.420) belonged to institutions on rural tourism development and the relationship was positive and significant. In total, 56 percent of the dependent variable of tourism development in Ashtaran village is explained by four factors: institutions, tourism infrastructure, economic capacities and tourism services.
Studying the Development of Rural Areas in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province Using PROMETHEE Method
Purpose- The cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province are in a deplorable condition in terms of rural development indices. The proper planning for optimal allocation of resources requires the analysis of development indices in the province, so that we can attain balanced and exhaustive development by capitalizing on existing forces and capacities of the cities to bring about prosperity and happiness for all people. In the present study, in order to identify the current status of development in the province and its rural areas, we have used eight effective criteria and 40 items (sub-criteria) to identify and classify rural areas in this city and rural areas. Design/methodology/approach- This is a descriptive-analytical study with an applied approach that adopts a regional approach to the geographical area. In order to model the level of development, according to the goals of the research, the development indices of the province were collected based on library resources. After identifying and reviewing the study indices, the weight of each index was determined based on the mathematical models used in the PROMETHEE decision making method. Finally, the results were entered in GIS software and the output maps were drawn. Findings- The results suggest that Boyer-Ahmad city with the highest net output flow is highly developed, followed by Basht and Lande cities. Originality /Value- This paper is categorized as new rural studies as it investigates 602 villages in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province using a PROMETHEE decision-making method. The results of this study can have many implications for rural planning researchers.
Identifying and Evaluating Businesses with Branding Potential in Rural Areas (Case study: Turkmen Sahara Region – Iran)
Purpose: In recent years, it has become more necessary to seek and apply new strategies to strengthen the foundations and diversification of economic activities in rural areas. Accordingly, in the context of the new theories of sustainable development, one of the approaches that is of great importance for the growth and sustainability of businesses in today's complex environments is branding. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to identify businesses with branding potential in Turkmen Sahara of Golestan province in Iran. The overwhelming limitations of product marketing are supporting the declining revenues of traditional sources in dealing with competitive markets as well as trying to expand, making available and identifying regional products with a branding approach Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we first identified and localized the branding indices and then identified the brand-liable products in the region using the Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS) method in multi-criteria decision making. Findings: The results showed that among the indicators of brand products in rural areas, satisfaction index with weight of 0.095 was put in the first place followed by adaptability with weight of 0.091, quality-orientation approach with a weight of 0.086 and valuable with a weight of 0.081. Also, among the common businesses and products in the region, cotton cultivation with a coefficient of 0.971 was the first priority followed by carpet weaving with a coefficient of 0.966, traditional foods with a coefficient of 0.952, Turkmen horse breeding with a coefficient of 0.943 and eco-tourism with a coefficient of 0.924 for planning the branding of products and services based on Brand Explanatory Indexes and using ARAS method. Practical implications: The study provides a perspective on the process of branding products and services in rural areas. Originality/value: This paper makes two major contributions: first, the introduction of branding indicators for rural businesses, and second, applying decision making models in the process of branding products and services with brand potential in rural studies.
Social Capacities to Facilitate the Establishment of Solar Energy Technology and its Effects on Sustainable Rural Development (Case Study: Kerman Desert Region, Iran)
Purpose: The use of solar energy has long been human interest. Some countries are trying to gradually replace fossil energy with solar energy because of special benefits such as lack of environmental pollution, frequency, immortality, and sustainable access. The potential of solar energy provides a good platform for the development of marginal villages and regions that are deployed away from urban centers or rural population centers. However, in some countries, despite the favorable weather conditions, for various reasons, the use of solar energy technology is still not commensurate with the potentials. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research adopted a descriptive-analytical method to explain the potentials of solar energy technology for sustainable rural development in the study area on 400 randomized samples. The potential and process of developing and expanding solar energy technology, as an effective factor, was determined by 34 items under indicators such as education and awareness-raising, knowledge and skills, trust-building, capacity building, participation, and partnership in investment. The dependent research variable was also measured through 106 items in ecological, socioeconomic, and physical dimensions of settlement development. Findings: The results suggested that the utilization of solar energy technology was effective in promoting sustainable development indicators of rural settlements in the study area. Hence, it is suggested to pay further attention to improving training and raising awareness as well as building support for villagers to increase the level of employment, participation, and investment in the utilization of solar energy technology.