تاریخ اسلام و ایران

تاریخ اسلام و ایران

تاریخ اسلام و ایران دوره جدید زمستان 1393 شماره 24 (پیاپی 114) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

نخستین پزشک اساطیری ایران چه کسی است؟(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Avesta Vandidad Therita Jamshid Fereidoon Shahnameh

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۴۰
In this article first of all we invest the name of Therita in Avesta and then the frequency of this name in middle Persian texts, after that introduce the first doctor in the historical books of Islamic Iran that some of them say he is Fereidoon and some say he is Jamshid. These three Iranian mythical characters somehow have connections with medicine, and in order to define the first doctor all three should be studied and differences in their characteristics in sources should be noticed. By a way it is thought that Ferdosi, in first four verses of Jamshid's introduction describes Therita adjectives for Jamshid.
۲.

ملکم و نقش آفرینی در تنظیمات عثمانی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Malkum Ottoman Tanzimat the constitution of the First Ottoman Constitutional Era Foad Pasha Aali Pasha Medhat Pasha

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ گروه های ویژه شخصیت ها
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ تاریخ جهان تاریخ عثمانی
تعداد بازدید : ۹۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۷۳۸
Mirza Malkum Khan Nazem al-Dowleh, the famous Iranian thinker and politician of the nineteenth century, spent about ten years in the Ottoman Empire during the period of Tanzimat and was associated with important figures in Tanzimat and the First Ottoman Constitutional Era such as Foad Pasha, Aali Pasha and Medhat Pasha. Later, he claimed that he had written the important Tanzimats figure, Foad Pasha’s will and had proposed a plan to the Ottoman court which the constitution of the First Ottoman Constitutional Era had been written based on that plan. Also, writing Aali Pasha’s will has been ascribed to him. The compliance of these claims with reality is the issue which is studied in this research using descriptive and analytic method as well as Malkum’s writings and documents and credible historical sources. And this fundamental question is answered whether his claims comply with the available facts in this regard.
۳.

جایگاه و کارکرد منصب داروغه در دوره تیموریان(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Darugha Timurids Timur Shahrukh Abu Said Bāyqarā

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی تیموری اجتماعی
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی تیموری فرهنگی
  3. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ گروه های ویژه تاریخ فرهنگی-اجتماعی-اداری ایران
تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۸۷۵
One of the consequences of Mongol invasion was the prevalence of phrases and comments in conquered lands, that one of them is Darugha. This office is seen in the whole of Mongol government successors, continued its existence in Timurids age. In the study, we are going to study position and function of this office in the bureaucratic empire structure of Timurids especially by emphasizing on the period of governance of Timur, Shahrukh, Abu Said, Sultan Hussein Bāyqarā, by the use of existing data in resources. Therefore, the main question in this study is that, what has been position and function of Darugha in bureaucratic hierarchy in the period of Timurids and What was the abonnement of Darugha with governor? This research applies the method of historical analysis and is based upon the original and first-hand scripts and documents .The result of the study show that Darugha is used often synonymous with governor. It has been one of state offices in the bureaucratic hierarchy in the period of Timurid and placed in behind of court mall princes in this organization. They were responsible for various administrative and military functions including: maintain order in areas under their control, providing welfare and security, departure to campaigns, participation in construction and agricultural activities, regarding floating responsibilities in the period that were resulted from The origins of tribal government.
۴.

بلدیه و بهداشت عمومی در دوره ی پهلوی اول(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Baladieh Public Health Reza Shah the health police

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی پهلوی اول اجتماعی
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ گروه های ویژه تاریخ پزشکی
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۹۷ تعداد دانلود : ۹۶۳
Baladieh as a new administration, has started its operation from the constitutional era, and in Reza Shah's reign continued its undertakings more seriously in the field of urban planning, cleaning, and supply needs of the citizens. Part of the Baladieh actions was in the field of public health. documents clearly indicate the Baladieh's attempt to reorganize community's health status. Supervising baths and deli shops, doctors and pharmacies, attempt to expand hospitals, monitoring guilds that directly or indirectly were in contact with public health, noticing women's health and public health, and culturalizion in these cases were some of Baladieh's attempts. However Baladieh made up the health police of Baladieh, health inspectors, and their judicial actions for executing its administrative instructions and circulars. This study, using descriptive and analytical method, and benefiting archival documents and books and magazines has investigated the activities of Baladieh administration in public health during the Pahlavi I. Purpose of this paper is to study the activities of the new Baladieh in Pahlavi I period in the context of its social functions. This research seeks to answer the question that the activities of the Baladieh resulted in which changes in the public health? In order to answer this question, firstly Iran's sanitations in late Qajars and Pahlavi I is described and then the Baladieh's sanitary tasks and attempts in public health is studied.
۵.

اوضاع سیاسی کردستان از مرگ نادر تا اواخر زندیه (سال های 1160- 1200ه.ق)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Kurdistan Ardalans Zandiah Babans Hassan Ali Khan Khosrow Khan Karim Khan Zand

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی زندیه فرهنگی
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی تاریخ محلی
تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۶۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸۱
Following the death of Nader Shah Afshar, the province of Kurdistan, with Sanandaj being the capital, ruled by the local influential dynasty of Ardalan, underwent a severe power struggle triggered by pretenders to the government of Iran, just as many other provinces experienced a similar power struggle. In addition, the strategic location of Kurdistan as the closest neighboring province of Ottoman paved the way for frequent interventions of Sublime Porte by means of the border guards, Babans. The absence of a centrally integrated government in Iran led to the spread of Ottoman influence to such an extent that the government of Kurdistan repeatedly slipped out of the hands of Ardalan dynasty into the hands of Pashas of Shahrzur and Solaymaniah .Therefore , the time span between the death of Nader and the late years of the Zandiah government (years 1747 to 1786) was one of the eventful periods in the history of Kurdistan . The present study analyzes the political developments in Kurdistan , the roles of Ardalan rulers in these developments, their relationships with the powerful and influential people, and the reasons of turbulence in this period. Findings of the present study show that the main reasons for turmoil in Kurdistan in this period include the crisis of power vacuum after the death of Nader and the absence of a powerful and integrated government in Iran, inappropriate policies of some Ardalan rulers, absence of appropriate relationships between the Zand dynasty and the Ardalan dynasty, and the rivalry among Baban Pashas for the domination over Kurdistan.
۶.

تحلیلی بر گسترش بیماری طاعون در ایران دوران فترت و تیموری (۷36 – ۹۱۱ ه.ق/ ۱۳36- ۱۵۰۶م)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Timurids Plague cholera Herat

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی تیموری اجتماعی
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ گروه های ویژه تاریخ پزشکی
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۳۷ تعداد دانلود : ۸۱۴
Timurid era in Iran is equivalent to starting the Renaissance. Black Death plague epidemic that is to say, at this time has happened. In one and a half-century Timurid rule, several large outbreaks of plague in Iran has emerged. The adverse effects of changes in population structure caused many historians point out these conditions in their works. The literature review shows that, unlike physicians, historians of the time, they did not differentiate between the plague and cholera, and sometimes in their writings used the two diseases as equivalent. A study in Time and place of the epidemics shows that diseases have been traveling along the Silk Road route, and especially in northern Iran, from east toward west.
۷.

محکمه ی یارغو؛ پژوهشی در باب محکمه ی قضایی ایلخانان مغول(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Yarghv Yarghvchy Mongols Yassa Ilkhans court judgment

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ ایران اسلامی حکومت های ایرانی- اسلامی مغول فرهنگی
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی تاریخ گروه های ویژه تاریخ فرهنگی-اجتماعی-اداری ایران
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۸۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۰۹
Yarghv was the exclusive mongol jurisdiction court to resolve claims and disputes in various fields and was formed in most areas of the mongol Empire, including the patriarch of Iran (654-750 AH). The court mostly took place for political and some economical and social crimes, in Mongol military camps. In this court, some methods similar to Islamic courts were used, such as testimony, forced confession by torture, and presentation of written documents; and criminals were judged based on Yassa. As Yarghvchy people were at the top of this Court. Yarghvchys, who were mostly Mongolian princes and commanders, judged based on Mongolian laws which rooted in Yassa. Dominance on yassa was the condition of becoming Yarghvchy. In this paper we notice this court, its manner and trial style, via study of Ilkhanid Texts; and by this means throw light on history of judicial system in Iran.
۸.

بررسی روابط تجاری ایران و کمپانی هند شرقی انگلستان در دوره ی زندیه، براساس تئوری سیستمی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iran Persian Gulf System theory tradition Zand government British East India Company

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۷۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸۱
The adaptation of sociological theories to historical subjects, despite the problems it encounters, is something that new historiography should start to do for dynamism and to avoid pure quotation of historical events and it should enjoy the results of other fields studies, especially sociology. In this case, System Theory has an important position in appropriate analysis and explanation of historical events. This essay studies Iran’s traditional relations and British East India Company in Zand era based on System Theory in order to analyze the various results of these two system’s relation. For this purpose, written contracts between them, have been the basis of assessment. Karim Khan expected to flourish commerce and return security to Iranian coast of Persian Gulf, via commercial relations with British East India Company. On the other hand British East India Company aimed to self allocate the benefits of trade with Persian Gulf and eliminate other rivals. In line with this review, objectives, political and economic outcomes this business relationship for both, be determined.

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