Every year, crises cause extensive and occasionally irreversible damage to countries and human societies affecting communities, economies, and environments. Identifying, proper planning, and optimum managing of crises are among the priorities of government programs and procedures. With the expansion and complexity of the societies and variety and innumerability of crisis-making factors, mere use of traditional methods of reinforcement and crisis management would not be efficient. One of the most important ideas brought about in the present decade for crisis management and urban planning is creating resilient cities in the face of various crises by increasing their capacity in all aspects. The significance of this standpoint is the comprehensive look at crisis-making factors, controlling crises, and reduction of vulnerability, particularly in human resources, which speeds the resilience process. Although all infrastructural or environmental, economic, social-cultural, and organizational or institutional aspects have been taken into consideration in resilience, the focus on social and cultural capacitating in each and every citizen would be greatly effectual in a developing country such as Iran. This land endures weak infrastructures and structures, but enjoys a rich cultural and national support from the citizens’ creativity and participation that can help us with achieving the goal of flexibility in crisis management by spending the least amount of time and money. In the present paper, the experiences of other nations and novel concepts such as creative cities, resistant development, principles of futures study and planning, and process-oriented strategic management have been studied along with the current state of Iran. Finally, the method of “Strategic Futures Study and Planning based on GIS” is suggested as a suitable approach in crisis management planning. In the author’s point of view, complete use of this method could help us significantly reduce the losses of disasters and pioneer in the field of crisis management among developing countries.<br /> <strong> </strong>
احسان خیام باشی
فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۶ مورد از کل ۶ مورد.
Nowadays one of the most important subjects discussed in the field of Management and planning of social and spatial development of cities is strategic schematization, which in case of proper usage can lead to arrangement and optimum usage of the resources and existing possibilities and desirable symphonic constant growth. Strategic schematization is actually systematic methods that cause incorporation and premiership actions considering four important parameters which are internal strengths and weaknesses and external chances and threats. With the help of this schematization we find out where we are, where we need to go and how we should get there. On the other hand one of today’s most important discussions in the world in the field of urban management and extension, according to the growth of urbanization, is the creation of metropolises and their problems and difficulties. The development of ICT contraction and information technology and its specific capability in haltering, controlling, omitting or reducing the difficulties of urban society has caused the idea of electronic cities which is in need of creating electronic organizations which is followed by electronic governments. Because of the unique traits such as exact and quick analyzing of the descriptive information related to them and also urban management needs of today’s society, the GIS positional information systems have changed into a safe tool to patronage the decisions of the reference location. Therefore achieving a complete useful location information system needs a calculated and proper short term and long term schematization. In this process using new methods of strategic schematization which includes analyzing SWOT as surveying and identifying the current situation, valuating and analyzing GIS needs and eventually recording the strategic and massive program can be very effective and solving. In this article surveying this subject and discovering paths towards this achievement has been discussed.
In spite of the advancements made in science and technology, the world is still facing the perils of prevalence and epidemic of different diseases from one side and problems such as inappropriate distribution of treatment giving services in a large number of countries. <br /> In such a condition there remains a need for the design of a comprehensive health system using the GIS based smart cards. This can facilitate having all common health, treatment services, such as issuing and receiving prescriptions, insurance services, having access to medical records which can accompany every individual. This will facilitate the development of social and spacial. Considering the fact that the data becomes regional and transferable (knowing they should stay confidential, and have permitted access) , predicated data banks in the health and hygiene net work management, such as offices and treatment giving insurance institutions could have all kinds of possibilities for planning, organizing, controlling and utmost management, in both individual and common health of the society. Although some developed countries are at the moment using smart cards in theirs health systems, but in this suggested system, the objective is to utilize the advantages of GIS smart cards being regional. In this scheme a smart card is intended for each individual, and often loading the necessary information on it. This is used instead of his health service notebook and clinical record. In addition identification card used to access the patient’s medical record and prescription card is designed for doctors. Also the service offering identification card is designed for health centres and pharmacies. Predications should be made of the regional information in every visit to the physician or a clinic, upon which all the following possibilities can be obtained; all statistical reports based on GIS, research activities, supervising over the health and treatment distribution, number and reason for visiting the health care centers, defining the start of an epidemic and factors offering it, checking the nutritional diseases, analysing the concentration and spreading of different disease and their causes according to region or country. All these data can help provide health maps, satellite pictures and defining various layers of information. Finally by the use of these cases optimum managing and development of a smart health and healing network can be made possible<strong>.</strong>
The role of social participation in increasing resiliency and developing urban life quality with a citizen empowerment approach (Case study: Regenerating worn urban textures of Zeinabieh community of Isfahan)
منبع: Socio-Spatial Studies, Vol ۳, Issue ۷, Summer ۲۰۱۹ 31 - 48
Today, social participation is considered as a crucial element in renewing urban life and enhancing resilience in confronting different crises. Regarding the troubles on the one hand and the limitations of tools and financial capacities of urban management on the other hand, districts with worn textures are taken as one of the main factors in decreasing the quality of life and increasing the vulnerability of cities. so, the most effective approach to choose for facing the shortcomings and imperfections is the participatory approach. This research aims to investigate the empowerment of local communities and the establishment of participatory management with a comprehensive practice along with the participation of citizens for renewing and reviving the worn urban texture of Zeinabieh district of Isfahan. This study was done by survey, documentary and analytical research methods. The results show that the participation of the residents for regeneration and renovation was somehow low in the mentioned district mainly due to their mistrust in the project executors. Having a feeling of satisfaction in the activities of the authorities and confiding in them is an element which paves the way for residents to boost their level of participation in regeneration and refurbishment of old textures. For this reason, the empowerment of residents was proposed as the most appropriate pattern for public involvement in the worn texture of the area under study. The use of such model creates the process of programming as well as the top-down decision makings which put emphasis on community indexes and accelerate citizen participation and confidence. Empowerment model, in practice, in addition to promoting the spatial-physical resilience, enhances the development of cultural and social resiliency through the reinforcement of social relations and the trust among the citizens on the one side and between the citizens and urban management on the other side.
Spatial Location of Urban Water and Wastewater installations, with the aim of increasing the resilience of crises
Crises have always caused many, and sometimes irreparable, damages and injuries to human nations having had adverse impacts on indices of society, economy and environment. Therefore analysis and optimum management of these crises are the priorities in the states around the world. Access to valid and up-to-date information plays the pivotal role in proper and timely programming and performance on managers’ and responsible organizations’ side in various phases of the crisis management cycle. While more than 80% of the required information in crises actually have a local and geographical nature, utilizing the modern technology of GIS with special capabilities in modeling, combining and analyzing the data can be effective and impasse-breaking while analyzing vast layers of information in both phases of prediction and strike of crises. A good knowledge of the crisis-causing factors before their strike or prediction of the essential arrangements to prevent or reduce their affects or aftermaths to the least is one of the base procedures in the management of unexpected events. In this direction, precision in properly locating the installations and passages of the pipes and canals would be immensely important; bearing in mind the key role of continuation of serving essential arteries; particularly water and sewage installations, in controlling and preventing the expansion of crises, and preserving public health and hygiene on the one hand, and the significant expenses of construction or reconstruction of these systems on the other. Thus, through this study, we have discussed how to exploit the creation and production procedures in purposefully locating water and sewage installations and also their other usages in designing, management, programming and development of these installations, in addition to introducing the geographical information systems and clarifications of the creation and production procedures. The location of urban water and sewage facilities is very effective in increasing the resilience of natural disasters through the use of the geographical information system.
Many parts of the world are affected by unusual events, natural disasters and incidents that aim for people’s life, property, and comfort and threaten their life and survival. Crises cause abundant and sometimes irreparable damages to countries and people along with adverse effects on social indexes. Therefore, identifying, appropriate planning, and optimal Resilient crisis management are of the highest priorities in various countries. Due to its great destruction power, expansion of the destruction area, lack of the possibility of predicting the occurrence time, continued losses and threats in the form of aftershocks, extensive injuries, and numerous problems in disaster relief, considering the destruction of the infrastructural installations and essential arteries, earthquake is a very important factor in crisis management. Meanwhile, based on the existing information 69% of Iran’s surface is affected by active faults and is considered to be one of the countries prone to having earthquakes. Besides, the general weakness of structures has caused extensive casualties in disasters. In these situations control and managing crisis especially earthquakes are of extreme importance in the field of recognition, prediction and preparation before the occurrence, planning, control and guidance after the occurrence. Obviously, achieving this aim requires rapid and simple access to correct and updated information and complicated analysis carried out by specialists and managers. On the other hand, more than 80% of the required information in crises is spatial-natured and earth-referenced. Applying GIS and related technologies can be of considerable help in collection, storage, classification and analysis of related spatial and descriptive data; and play a determining role in identifying and direct application in both prediction and prevention, and direct dealing with events. In this article, we will study the role of GIS In planning urban Resilient and promotion helping dominate crises and their proper management, in order to reduce financial losses and injuries. Besides we try to examine the methods to identify and classify historical and worn structures with the aim of planning and priority setting of seismic improvements and retrofitting buildings against earthquakes. Given the fact that the greatest concentration of resilience in crises is on improving the city's cultural, social, economic, physical and organizational dimensions, the use of the capabilities of the GIS system is very useful given the rich information layers.