political science

political science

International Journal of Political Science, Vol 12, No 3 , May & June 2022



The Impact of the Thoughts of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri and Allameh Naini on the Islamic Awakening

کلید واژه ها: Thoughts of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri Allameh Naini Islamic Awakening

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
Historical analyzes show the fact that in the process of the constitutional liberation and justice movement, a fundamental and key role has been played by the militant scholars. In such a way that they, with their spiritual and spiritual influence, were able to create an uprising against the authoritarian rulers, which later led to fundamental changes and the Islamic awakening in the structure of the political and social system; In the meantime, the ideas of Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri and Allameh Naeini have had an impact on the Islamic Awakening, and this effect has taken place in the constitutional movement in the form of systematizing constitutionalism alongside the Justice House (Edalat Khaneh) movement. This historical course, especially from the last century until today and from today to the horizon of the new Islamic civilization, shows the evolutionary and transcendent course in the movement of Islamic awakening. This article, with the concepts of Islamic awakening, on the one hand, witnesses the elitist ideology and the bipolar theory of government by Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri to fulfill the rules of Sharia; On the other hand, Allama Naini for the first time combined the right of popular sovereignty with the rule of the jurists in the context of religion.

The Effects and Consequences of Language Hegemony on the Culture and Identity of Language Learners: Case Study of the Iranian Language Center (2005-2017)

کلید واژه ها: Linguistic hegemony culture Identity English

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵
The study of the cultural and identity status of societies affected by various phenomena and variables, including educational, cultural and artistic systems, is one of the fundamental special works in the field of political sociology. By studying and researching cultural and identity changes in societies, the researcher is aware of the reasons, contexts, effects and consequences of this. The present study investigates the effects and consequences of language hegemony on the culture and identity of language learners in the Iranian Language Center between 2005 and 2017. Accordingly, this research is classified as a descriptive research based on the result and purpose of applied research, and in terms of method, and in terms of data collection in the field of survey research. According to the sample size, 277 questionnaires were prepared and provided to students of the Iranian Language Center to collect information. Based on the analysis of the collected data, the Iranian society can be called a marginal society in which English is still recognized as a foreign language and not a second language. The two mechanisms of knowledge and educational skills, and in particular the centrality of the English language and culture, are very prominent and effective among learners and even English teachers. It is in such circumstances that it is possible to form and expand the hegemony of the English language in Iranian society as a result of the current trend of the development of this language, which has been associated with a kind of dependence of our educational system on the central communities; And acknowledged in the absence of any linguistic sensitivity or realistic and logical language planning.

The political and Administrative Justice in Civil Society

کلید واژه ها: Administrative justice Hearing Impartiality Proportionality public interest

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
Every civil society needs the development of justice for its survival and in the modern era, one of the most important manifestations of that is administrative justice. The conception of administrative justice in any legal system is a function of political action. That is, it is more a product of the political agreement of the nation of land than a metaphysics conception. This concept primarily focuses on the fair distribution of resources and then on fair administrative decisions. Administrative justice is the basis for the structuring of the administrative system into an advanced legal system that applies to the equitable distribution of wealth through administrative law and legal principles derived from the customary concept and are sometimes defined in procedural and substantive principles in administrative court proceedings. Therefore, we are faced with a concrete concept that understands the system of administrative law and public law as defined by legal principles. Administrative justice is made by political affairs and is paid through legal institutions. These concepts are shaped by common social values ​​and, after legal incorporation, their customary concept becomes legal. The concept of administrative justice in the judgments of the Administrative Justice has been expressed in two principles of impartiality and proportionality. The first principal deals with the concept of administrative justice procedures and the principle of proportionality of its substantive concept. Therefore, the most important application of the concept of administrative justice is to determine the legal principles that are relevant to it in administrative proceedings and in the jurisdiction of the administrative justice court.

Conceptual Expansion of the Public Sphere from Literary and Political to Scientific

کلید واژه ها: Modern Society Progress Issue Scientific Public Sphere university

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
The public sphere is one of the most important explanatory and normative concepts in the field of political sociology. Addressing the public sphere is especially important because it can explain the transition from the traditional to the modern. In particular, the fundamental question here is whether it is possible to arrive at a normative understanding of the situation in Iran by addressing and analyzing the public sphere, as Habermas has described it. Our problem is a general and at the same time specific problem. There are two central concepts in Jürgen Habermas's theory of structural transformation in the general sphere. One is literary-artistic speech and the other is political-moral speech. According to Habermas, the public sphere was first formed around literary and artistic debates, and then into political and moral discourse. From then on, the public sphere became practically a focal point for criticizing the political situation; To the extent that the public sphere became a free space and the concept of public opinion was born from it. In this article, while briefly explaining the two aforementioned areas, an attempt is made to propose a third area that describes our descriptive and normative understanding of the transition to the modern situation. This third field can be called a scientific field.

A Comparative Study of Humanitarian law and Human Rights in Creating International Peace and Security

کلید واژه ها: international security Humanitarian law Human Rights International Peace

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
International peace and security are one of the values ​​and aspirations of humanity in the world, and for all human beings, regardless of ethnicity, race, religion or nationality, enjoying a life of peace and security is a vital value. This common sense, the study of the history of human life, tells of bitter events and bloody wars that have disrupted the order of the international community and endangered peace and security. All factors have led to the implementation of any rules related to the public interest of the international community to solve this problem; International humanitarian law and human rights are part of international law that builds peace and security. They communicate internationally and exchange and coordinate with each other for the sake of international peace and security. This article will provide a comparative study of humanitarian law and human rights in the context of international peace and security and will answer the question of how human rights and humanitarian law contribute to international peace and security.  

Measuring Socio-Political Participation on Political Trust in the Elections of West Azerbaijan Province from 2011 to 2019

کلید واژه ها: Assessment Political social participation political trust elections West Azerbaijan

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶
The present study seeks to examine whether the measurement of political and social participation is effective on political trust in the elections in the province of West Azerbaijan from 2011 to 2019? It seeks to examine the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between civic participation, forgiveness and the spirit of volunteerism, political participation and religious participation with political trust. Survey research method was used to test the hypotheses; The statistical population of this study includes all citizens of West Azerbaijan province, both men and women (urban and rural); Who are over the age of 18 and are eligible to vote by law. According to the latest information and statistics of the Management and Planning Organization of West Azerbaijan Province, there are 2,284,359 (two million two hundred and eighty-four thousand three hundred and fifty-nine) people. In this study, simple random sampling method was used and 384 samples were selected. Research questionnaires have been prepared from standard questionnaires in two parts related to dependent variable (political trust) and independent variable (social and political participation). The inferential statistics method used in this section includes tests such as: factor analysis test, Pearson correlation coefficient test, regression test, path analysis test. To analyze the data of the present study, SPSS software version 24 was used and according to the results of the research, the research hypotheses were confirmed.

Gender Cleavage and Political Conflict in Iran: A Sociological Approach

کلید واژه ها: Iran Islamic revolution political conflict Gender Cleavage Gender equality

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
A look at Iran's contemporary history shows that in the past century, Iranian society has been alternately involved in riots, movements, revolutions  and political instability. To explain the causes of these conflicts, theorists have emphasized various factors, among which the number, type, nature and structure of social divisions in Iran can be mentioned. One of the faults that became activated after the Islamic Revolution is the gender cleavage. This article deals with the question of what role gender played in the process of political conflicts in post-revolutionary Iran.The findings show that the activation of the gender cleavage caused the political conflicts after the revolution to take on a gendered color.As a result,while women pursue specific demands related to their gender class, other groups and political factions involved in political conflicts also have emphasized their demands to attract their opinion, and from time to time, they have highlighted these demands in their campaign agenda.The current research is of a qualitative type based on documentary and library methods,and the relevant data were collected through note-taking of various books,articles,and documents,and the data were described and analyzed with a sociological approach.

A Comparative Study of Iran's Neighborhood Policy Discourse with the Ottomans and Russia

کلید واژه ها: Discourse Neighborhood Policy Ottomans Tsarist Russia Convergence divergence Historical Institutionalism

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
The importance of the historical study of the Russian and Ottoman neighborhood policy lies in the fact that, in addition to the importance of these two countries in geographical, social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, a large number of Iran's neighboring countries were somehow under the control of these two empires before independence. In this research, the historical process of Iran's relations with these two important neighboring countries has been studied using the descriptive method and discourse analysis of Lacla and Moufe with the approach of historical institutionalism. The results show that during the lifetime of the Ottoman Empire until the disintegration of this empire, coinciding with the Safavid to Qajar governments, we witness two neighboring discourses. The discourse of the first period, the discourse of structural divergence, later with the change of political, economic and social geography and the requirements of the world system, this discourse turns into the discourse of minimal convergence. The discourse of "structural divergence" was formed on the centrality of the neighborhood policy based on the tyranny of the kingdom. The discourse signs of structural divergence included geographical dominance, expansion of religious ideology, political divergence, economic divergence, and world trade. The minimal convergence discourse is based on the centrality of the political signifier based on the court's understanding of global realities. The semantic system of this discourse is based on the main signs of acknowledging the existence of the neighboring country, the unbalanced weight of different aspects of the relations between the two countries, and the continuation of divergence alongside convergence. However, in comparison, the central sign of the discourse of the neighborhood with Russia is tsarist imprudence and court tyranny, and the main signs are passivity against Russia's expansionism, "military weakness in exercising territorial sovereignty, weakness in attracting the Iranian peoples of Central Asia and the Caucasus, and giving in to disgraceful agreements." they give. With the formation of the Soviet Union and the beginning of a new discourse, Russian expansionism in Iran in its territorial form ended and the chapter of ideological confrontations between communism and capitalism began. The discourse of Iran's neighborhood policy with the Ottomans and Russia is like two pieces of a puzzle that are both complementary and effective on each other's growth. If Iran's neighborhood policy regarding Russia and Ottomans had the same importance for Iran's ruling body, it is possible that a different historical path would have been established for the region and Iran.

The Role of Good Governance in the Efficient Functioning of the Government Fighting Economic Corruption in the Islamic Republic of Iran

کلید واژه ها: Corruption Administrative Violations Government Good Governance

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶
Corruption and administrative violations are the product of inefficient administrative system, negative bureaucracy, ineffective management system and lack of meritocracy. Different solutions have been proposed to deal with corruption. One of these solutions, which is the subject of this research, is good governance. In recent years, good governance has become an important issue in public and public sector management, and this issue is due to the important role that this type of governance plays in determining community health. The present article, which has been written using the descriptive-analytical method, in response to the question of how to prevent and reduce corruption and increase administrative health in the Islamic Republic of Iran, claims that the application of good governance principles as an efficient model by promoting and improving components such accountability, transparency, rule of law, participation, accountability, etc. can lead to the health of the administrative system and enrich the ties between the government and the nation. 

Analysis the Position of Cognitive Components of Media Literacy in the Optimal use of Social Media (Case study: adolescents in Tehran)

کلید واژه ها: media literacy social media adolescents Cognitive Components Tehran

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
The aim of this study was to investigate the status of cognitive components of media literacy in the optimal use of social media in adolescents in Tehran. The study method is a survey and the statistical sample is 425 adolescents in Tehran in the eleventh and twelfth grades. Our statistical sample was selected as a cluster and randomly from schools in five areas of Tehran (north, south, west, east, and center), and the data using they were designed from a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Findings showed that according to the level of significance and statistical value of t, media cognition on technological cognition and epistemological cognition, content production has a positive and significant effect on cognitive and technological cognition and media cognition, as well as epistemological cognition on technological cognition. Friedman found that technological knowledge has the highest and media knowledge has the lowest in terms of the desired situation.

The Impact of the 2020 US Election on Changing the Position of US Soft Power in the World

کلید واژه ها: US Election Donald Trump Joe Biden Public Diplomacy Soft power

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
The 2020 US presidential election was held indirectly through the Electoral College with the rivalry between Trump and Biden from both the Republican and Democratic parties, and as a result, many American crises emerged, indicating a shift in the position of soft power. Soft power means convincing others to achieve the desired result through persuasion, which was invented by Joseph Nye. The soft power of the United States has led to a loss of its international appeal by taking a hard line on soft issues, such as ignoring public diplomacy. The question is, to what extent has the 2020 election affected America's soft power position? The emergence of crises, such as inefficiency in internal management, Trump's rejection of the election results, has led to the decline of America's soft power position in the world. Given this approach to the 2020 elections, this study seeks to examine the challenges posed by many analysts, both in the debate and after the election, through a descriptive-interpretive discourse analysis method. And explain how it has degraded America's soft power position and been able to have a direct impact on its future and global policies, such as the possibility of a power shift paradigm in the international arena. It also suggests that Iran can turn threats into opportunities with constructive policies, despite maximum US pressure.

Designing a systemic model for promoting social capital in influential government organizations with emphasis on the Corona crisis

کلید واژه ها: Social capital strategic model Social Security crisis management corona

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵
In this article, the authors try to design a social capital promotion model for the branches of the Social Security Organization of Mazandaran Province during the corona outbreak. The research method is exploratory (qualitative-quantitative). The statistical population in the qualitative section was 30 university professors and executive elites in the field of management and in the quantitative section was 150 elites in the field of social security. In the qualitative part, using the snowball method of dreading theoretical saturation with 16 experts, in-depth interviews were conducted and in the quantitative part, to evaluate the model, a researcher-made questionnaire was distributed among 90 samples by relative cluster sampling method. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by form-content method and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha method. Data were analyzed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS and AMOS software. The corona outbreak period has 18 dimensions as follows:  causal variables (organizational transparency, competence, support and social cohesion), contextual variables (innovative designs, development and customer relationship management, organizational skills and management), intervention variables (Setting and maintaining policies to overcome constraints, optimal crisis management, efficient manpower and service delivery development), strategic variables (recognizing threats and challenges, innovative strategies, recognizing and financing), and outcome (increasing investment, Intensification of social interaction, deepening social satisfaction, comprehensive development of the organization). The results of the quantitative section showed that all the dimensions of the research model of the research were confirmed

Opportunities of Virtual Social Networks for Critical Infrastructure of National Security (From the Point of View of Political and Virtual Media Experts)

کلید واژه ها: National security virtual space Social Networks Opportunities grounded theory

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶
Virtual space and the associated social networks, like many other emerging phenomena, have both positive and negative consequences in various aspects of life. The undeniable impact of this space is particularly significant in the national security of countries, as it can create numerous opportunities for national security along with the changes and developments it brings about. This research aims to identify the opportunities that social networks create for the infrastructure of national security. Data were collected through grounded theory and in-depth interviews with 16 experts in the fields of politics and virtual space. The data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding methods, employing the Strauss and Corbin approach. The research results indicate that virtual social networks can provide unique opportunities for national security by strengthening the infrastructures of social, political, cultural, economic, and environmental security. The research results are presented in the form of a paradigm model of opportunities.