political science

political science

International Journal of Political Science, Vol 9, No 2 , summer 2019



The Great Caspian Basin and the Geopolitical Balance in Today's World

کلید واژه ها: Post Cold War Power balance Geopolitics Trans Regional

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Undoubtedly, during the post-Cold War era, the fields of political competition changed and with the change in the political geography of the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus and Central Asia, as the Soviet Union collapsed and new countries emerged, the field of competition for a change in power balance not only expanded but took on a new form. Economic benefits, diversification of fossil fuels and new and large markets have shaped, so trans-regional countries have become aware of this part of the world. Com-petition for filling the geopolitical vacuum in the Caspian Sea and its Piraeus due to po-litical forces trying to balance power in the regions, from the offensive Realism's point of view is the subject of this article. This paper uses a Descriptive-Analytic library ap-proach to answer the following question, what roles do the Caspian and Eurasian areas play in the geopolitical balance of the world today? The expansion of globalization, the free market, and the explosion of information indicate the polarization of this region. Given the presence of important Trans-Regional and regional Players in this area, the important Hypothesis is that, the region will be the geopolitical intersection of the mul-tipolar world in the future.

Crisis in Venezuela: A Politico Economic Understanding


کلید واژه ها: economic crisis political crisis extra - regional players Latin America humani - tarian crisis

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More than five years down the line Venezuela had been slipping into an economic cri-sis. An economy wholly dependent on the sale of oil and no diversification of economic production is sure to face such a crisis. The fluctuation in oil prices is sure to hurt the market and the economy. To make matters worse, Venezuela now faces a political crisis with two individuals claiming themselves to be Presidents, Maduro and Guaidó. On the top of that, the current regime is alleged of massive corruption and an anti-democratic stance. There is always repression and suppression of democratic voices and protestors face persecution and human rights abuses. Such precarious condition of Venezuela eco-nomically and politically makes it vulnerable to external players may be private oil companies or even extra-regional States/powers. The paper will focus on the economic and political crisis in Venezuela. It will also point out at its fall out in the form of a hu-manitarian crisis and its impact on the neighboring countries of Latin America. As Ve-nezuela is caught between the politics of big powers, the solution becomes more prob-lematic and the paper will make an attempt to project that.

The Effect of South African Geopolitical Position in the Development of Cinema in South Africa

کلید واژه ها: Geopolitical location Variety of culture language religion Climate Wildlife Lower cost of living and working Development

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This paper will discuss about the role of the geopolitical location of South Africa in the development of movie and the cinema industry in this country. Despite of bringing ci-nema to South Africa by white Europeans, but the development of this phenomenon is mostly due to the geopolitical position of this country. It is interesting to know that ci-nema reached Africa in much the same time as it spread across Europe and the United States. Moreover, the South African film industry is one of the oldest in the world, with the first feature film, The Kimberly Diamond Robbery; being shot in 1910. South Afri-can cinema is one of the best and well-developed cinemas in the African continent. Re-garding to the advantages of geopolitics factors in South Africa there are a large number of the US and European active film companies in this country. These factors are in-cluded: Variety of culture, language, religion, climate, wildlife, lower cost of living, and working compare with European and American countries. And also, as South Africa is a country of strikingly beautiful and varied landscape, with a wide variety of climatic zones that range from the Kalahari Desert in the northwest to the dramatic mountain range in the southeast, and from the Mediterranean coastal ridges in the south-central region to the rolling prairie Savanna grassland of the central plateau and the north.

Identity and Foreign Policy


کلید واژه ها: Structuralism Identity Foreign policy Iran Islamic Republic

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The culture and identity have occupied the second place in international theories and foreign policy analysis. At first the structuralism approach as a social theory and subse-quently in international relations and foreign policy has attempted to analyze non-corporeal factors such as culture the norms and values on foreign policy. Since culture identity norms and values were an integral part of Iran's Revolution it has also influenced Iran's foreign policy as a result of these issues. In this research I attempted to study the elements that form the identity of Islamic republic of Iran’s sys-tem such as being Iranian Islamic and global and then we analyzed the effect of Iran’s political system in foreign policy. Thus the author’s goal is to analyze Iran’s foreign policy by using a descriptive analytical method in terms of structuralism. The author believes that structuralism may have a better way of describing the behavior of Iran’s foreign policy and natio

A New Approach to Public Policy Studies Relying on the Theory of Critical Discourse Analysis Studies the State as a Discourse

کلید واژه ها: Studies the state Discourse Public policy Debate Critical Studies

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Understanding the policy cycle, as well as scrutinizing the text of hidden and obvious policies and rules, requires a model of discourse analysis based on which discursive ap-proaches of policy makers are understood and estimated. However, when it comes to presenting a policy model, we have to use the views of policy theorists to see how a problem as a "public goods" can be found in the policy agenda setting. Regarding public policy-making procedures, quantitative or descriptive approaches, in studies the state, are often used to pathologizing policies or to obtaining policy advice models. However, this paper attempts to show that studies the state is a discourse that is described by the dominant discursive signifiers in the target society in which policy-makers make mean-ing to concepts. If we assume that the policy making cycle is something other than a several stages, such as defining a problem, finding a solution to it, decision making and implementing, then it is clear that the definition of a problem, whether the presentation of solutions and the process of decision making and its implementation, cannot be out-side the discourse. Therefore, public policy at the macro level and studies the state, as one of its examples and functions, is a discursive, which its understanding is possible only if the dominant discourse and its relation to the realities of the society in question are well understood.

The Emergence and Evolution of Political Parties of the Constitution: The First and Second Periods


کلید واژه ها: Political Parties The Constitution National Consultative Assembly Consti - tutional Revolution Interregnum

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The evolution of studies of political parties of constitution: The first and second periods show that the evolution of parties indicates that researchers' attitude to political pheno-mena also coincide with the evolution of political realities has been transformed, and the consideration of ideologies in the analysis of the parties have replaced with religious perspectives and anti-authoritarian and constitutionalism. Contrary to the first studies conducted about parties that had deep attention to party organizations and their ideolo-gies, over time, the methods of achieving political power and achieving constitutional constitution in the first phase of examining a brief overview of different perspectives on parties separate from that is a way to get acquainted with the most important aspects of the life of the parties illustrates the fact that in the political sciences can refer to a new knowledge called "sociology of political parties"; a knowledge, which has placed a set of coherent insights and in practice undergone significant changes. The purpose of this paper is an overview on the emergence and development of political parties of the con-stitution, focusing on the first and second periods. Instead of examining the theory of all the authors that is about political parties of the constitution, it might be better to ex-amine the evolution of views in this regard, and only to analyze the views of scholars who have specialized studies on the emergence and evolution of political parties in con-stitution specially the first and second periods.

The Elite and the Change in Political Culture of Iran of the Qajar Era, Noorollah Qeysari,Tehran: Center of Islamic Revolution Documents, 2009.

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Political culture in Iran, the changes in it, factors causing these changes and their proba-ble outcomes have been of interest to writers and researchers at the present time more than ever; as a result, the concept of political culture, which is a newly developed con-cept in the political studies and research in Iran, is regarded as of great importance in these studies. Similarly, the number of publications focusing on this concept has in-creased dramatically. Each of these publications tries to offer a new reading of the so-cio-political changes and their outcomes through analyzing a particular era or a specific aspect of the subject. In this approach the roots and the key factors influencing the atti-tude of people towards power and politics are studied; the attitude of the people deter-mines their behavior towards power, politics and in different times and circumstances takes different forms, such as support, criticism, riot or indifference.