political science

political science

International Journal of Political Science, Vol 12, No 4 , July & Aug 2022



Third Millennium US Military Strategies in the Persian Gulf Region and National Security of the Islamic Republic of Iran


Feasibility study of the impact of the Governance Gap on the Efficiency of the Political System from the Perspective of Political Stability; Case study of the Islamic Republic of Iran

کلید واژه ها: Political Stability Islamic Republic Governance Gap efficiency Inefficiency

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲
The governance gap is an important one and somewhat unknown. Although there is a lot of talk about how and why, but so far it has not been addressed in detail. This gap is the result of non-compromise and agreement on principles and foundations and arising from the atmosphere of conflict that arose in the years after 1997 between the two discourses of reformism and fundamentalism. In this research, using the method of discourse, while examining the discourse of the Islamic Revolution as well as the two discourses of reformism and fundamentalism, the two issues of the relationship between the conflict and the gap between the two with the category of "efficiency "and then" political stability "have been considered. This study seeks to answer the question: "What effect has the governance gap in the Islamic Republic of Iran had on the efficiency of the system in the years after 1997?" And its main finding is that the governance gap, by creating instability in the political system, has provided grounds for inefficiency in some areas. In a way, if this rift and conflict did not exist, the political system would have functioned better.

The Impact of International Sanctions on Development of Health Tourism in Iran

کلید واژه ها: health tourism International Sanctions Sanctions on aircraft and its Parts Oil Exports Tourism infrastructure and Budget deficit

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
Health tourism, as a subset of Tourism, is composed of separate sections. This industry is currently one of the most leading and lucrative industries in the World. Different countries benefit from this industry according to their abilities, capabilities and the amount of attention they pay to it. But Iran is not able properly to exploit these sections due to its capabilities. One of the main obstacles to the development of Health tourism are international sanctions. This study aims to answer the following Question: How international sanctions effect on development of Health tourism in Iran? According to the descriptive- analytical method from the statistics and data of reputable international and domestic organizations and through the following hypothesis supposes that international sanctions, directly and indirectly, hinder the development of Health tourism. The results demonstrate that international sanctions directly prevent the sale of aircraft and its parts, bank transactions and etc. and indirectly, by prohibiting the export of oil, petrochemical products, minerals and crude metals, cause the government a lack of access to foreign currency, thereupon creating the budget deficit and ultimately postponing the development of infrastructure as a base for development of health tourism, therefore, it has a negative impact and reduces the growth rate of its development.

A comparative Study of Iranian and Turkish Cultural Diplomacy in Iraq (2003 - 2020)

کلید واژه ها: Cultural Diplomacy Soft power Iraq Iran Turkey Neo-ottomanism

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
The purpose of this study is to conduct comparative review of Iran and Turkey’s cultural diplomacy in Iraq after the US invasion and the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime. Iran and Turkey, as two influential powers in the developments of the Middle East, are trying to advance their cultural diplomacy in Iraq according to the nature of their government, goals, and aspirations. The main question of the research is, “On what approach are the effectiveness factors of Iranian and Turkish cultural diplomacy in Iraq between 2003 and 2020 based?” The hypothesis is that Iranian cultural diplomacy in Iraq after 2003 has been following Shi’ism, the axis of resistance, and Iranianism as the cornerstones of its approach, as opposed to Turkish cultural diplomacy that is based on Turkish nationalism and neo-Ottomanism. Accordingly, each of these governments is trying to exert influence in Iraq using soft power and cultural diplomacy. In doing this, Iran and Turkey have different conditions, opportunities, threats, and tools to advance their cultural diplomacy. The research findings indicate that Iran is in a better position than Turkey in terms of conditions, opportunities and tools but the focus on Shiism and the issue of resistance in Iraq has led to little attention paid to other features of cultural diplomacy. In contrast, Turkey, with its benefit-oriented and opportunistic approach, has been able to make the most of tools such as Kurdish language and literature, media diplomacy, tourism development, scientific and educational topics, etc. through careful planning and has gained more influence in Iraq. The method of data analysis is descriptive-analytical and the data collection was carried out via library research.  

Annulment of International Arbitration Awards in the Light of foreign Investment Law

کلید واژه ها: Annulment International Arbitration Awards Foreign Investment Law

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲
With the spread of economic crises in recent decades, the number of disputes between the host government and the investor has increased. Mechanisms have been established to resolve these disputes, which maintain order and security in the international community. Among these mechanisms is investment arbitration. Arbitration decisions are final, binding and one-step. But sometimes the issued vote has such damages and defects that it needs serious correction and annulment. It seems that prescribing the implementation of such decisions is like participating in injustice. Therefore, the development of codified and consistent rules regarding annulment in organizational and case arbitrations, as well as the arbitration rules of countries, will lead to encouraging foreign investment. Regarding the annulment of arbitration opinions, their advantages and disadvantages, no written research has been done, and cases of annulment have only been mentioned during the writing of some books or articles, without the precise interpretation of its existence. Especially, despite the importance and effect of Article 52 of the ICSID, the framework of this article has not been accurately calculated in arbitration procedures. Therefore, according to the philosophy of arbitration, the cases of revoking the vote should be limited to specific cases so that the vote is not swayed due to the non-compliance of minor matters. It should be kept in mind that the request to annul the arbitration opinion is not an obstacle or limitation of the arbitration and the purpose of these mechanisms is not to question the one-stage nature of the arbitration. In this research, it is tried to state that the purpose of establishing the revocation mechanism is not to weaken the arbitration procedure, but to create fairness and balance. Because it lacks causes the lack of transparency and accuracy of arbitration opinions, which is undeniable.

Evaluation of Possibility Assessment of Russia - China Cooperation on Atlanticism (2011-2021)

کلید واژه ها: Russia China Cooperation Atlanticism NATO expansion to the East the United States the balance of threats

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷
The expansion of NATO to the East under the policies of Atlanticism is one of the current issues of international relations, which has a lot to think about for the countries involved in this policy, their neighbors and the international order. After the expansion of NATO to the east, what will happen in the spheres of influence of NATO and the neighboring countries of those spheres and the conditions created, causes predictions in this field; One of them is the evaluation of the feasibility of cooperation between China and Russia with their own special conditions against this action, that is, Atlanticism. After experiencing many ups and downs in China-Russia relations, these two countries have gradually expanded their comprehensive cooperation since the mid-1990s. In the meantime, the expansion of NATO to the east is one of the important political, military and security issues that has led to the expression of common concern. And at the same time, the cooperation and positions of the two countries have come closer, especially towards the policies and actions of America and even Europe. Russia's concern about the presence of NATO in its borders and China's concern about the close military cooperation of the West with Taiwan have caused the two countries to work harder for mutual cooperation and their development fields. The concept of new Atlanticism provides a framework for analyzing security and normative challenges facing Europe and the world. This work and many similar works emphasize the fact that the behavior of America and its allies in the international system has become the basis for the creation of various coalitions and alliances. From the perspective of this research and emphasizing the threat balance theory, when the hegemon country and its allies create threats, or show threatening behaviors; They will create coalitions and alliances. In this article, an attempt was made to discuss the feasibility of expanding cooperation between China and Russia against Atlanticism by using the theoretical framework of threat balance. And the topic of these cooperation was examined according to the concepts, general capabilities such as (population, economic power, military power, etc.), geographical proximity, offensive capabilities and offensive intentions from the perspective of the threat balance theory.

Convergence Evolution in West and Southwest Asia and Iran's Position in it

کلید واژه ها: Convergence West Asia Southwest Asia Iran China Road Belt

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷
Southwest Asia, despite its geographical, historical, cultural, and economic contexts, is extremely weak in terms of degree of convergence, and a series of border, political, security, and religious differences have led to critical conditions and suspicion of governments. has brought. Existing economic necessities, especially for countries with closed lands far from the high seas and effective international transportation networks. The aim of this study is to transform the convergence in West Asia and Southwest Asia and Iran's position in it. Southwest Asia is very important from both the land and sea dimensions of the Road Belt Initiative, but since the maritime dimension of this strategy covers a large part of the countries in the region, Southwest Asia has become a region that can play a maritime role. Play a leading role in achieving China's foreign policy goals. There are many reasons for Southwest Asia's pivotal position in China's maritime strategy, which is the most important source of energy for China's economy, as China is heavily dependent on energy imports for economic stability and continued production. Iran played a key role in the ancient Silk Road. From a geopolitical, economic and cultural point of view, Iran is an important country in the road belt initiative.

Evaluating the distributive effects of economic misery index in selected Islamic countries (FMOLS approach)

کلید واژه ها: Misery index income distribution Gini coefficient Selected Islamic countries

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲
Income inequality is one of the undesirable phenomena of social life and most of the countries in the world have kept it their main goal to reduce Income inequality. This study is based on the economic impact of the doom index on the distribution of income using data from selected Islamic countries (Afghanistan, Albania, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Uganda) from 2010 to 2018, using panel data approach for variables EViews model is used. This study explains the significant effect of misery index with a coefficient of (0.057) on the Gini coefficient and shows that with a one percent increase in the misery index can increase Gini coefficient by 0.057 percent and increases the class gap in societies. It also shows that Labor productivity with a coefficient of 0.01 has a significant negative effect on the Gini coefficient, which explains the 0.01% decrease in income distribution inequality due to a 1% increase in labor productivity. Therefore, in addition to controlling inflation and unemployment, improving human resource skills, economic policymakers should use incentive mechanisms to develop exports and the effectiveness of governments to reduce the class gap in their societies.

Investigating the relationship between governance indicators and shadow economy in Iran

کلید واژه ها: Shadow Economy Governance Corruption Control Government Efficiency Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱
The shadow economy (SE) is a pathological normalcy, not only in developing countries but also in developed ones, causing disagreeable distortions in the real economy. The causes of the shadow economy can be traced back to actors who operate outside the formal sector to reap the benefits. The way these actors work can both affect the quality of governance and affect it. The right to comment and accountability, political stability and non-violence, government efficiency, the quality of governance laws, the rule of law and the control of corruption are indicators of governance evaluation in this regard. Therefore, in this study, using Hishao causality method, the causal relationship between these indicators with the shadow economy in Iran during the years 1995 to 2017 has been investigated. Findings show that government efficiency, rule of law and control of corruption have a two-way relationship with the shadow economy and the indicators of the right to comment and accountability, political stability and non-violence and the quality of governance laws have a one-way relationship with it.

Political Discourse in the Poems by Constitutionalism Era’s Poets (Case Studies: Adib Al-Mamalek Farahani and Malek Al-Sho’ara’a Bahar)

کلید واژه ها: political discourse poetry Constitutionalism Adib Al-Mamalek Farahani Malek Al-Sho’ara’a Bahar

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳
Political poetry underwent considerable changes in both the format and the theme after the onset of the constitutionalism movement. While poetry and being a poet were commodities belonging to the educated persons until before constitutionalism. They made a lot of efforts in this period to get close to the language of the alleys and streets. In this era, political poetry seeks to express the people’s concerns and it becomes sublime with poets becoming the people’s tongue against superstition and despotism. Both prose and poetry experience subtle changes in this period. To be more exact, the constitutionalism’s literature is formed and enlivened in the course of the battle with the old literature and, due to the same reason, it is novel and it violates the tradition in terms of both form and content. The constitutionalist thinkers insist on pulling words out of the magnificent aristocratic palaces and making them serve the people of alleys and bazars. The goals of the poems in this period are awakening the people and inciting the national and patriotic feelings and promoting the individual and social freedoms and denial of the superstitions and loose and improper thoughts, fighting with the foreigners and westernism, harshly and mercilessly criticizing the disorders and familiarizing the people with their human limits and rights. It was with the constitutionalism’s revolution that the newspapers along with the preaching, discussion and lecture sessions became the primary medium for the conversations and expressing of the revolutionary notions and opinions, and a “public arena” that had been never seen before came about. More importantly, insolence, insult, and frivolity lost their private, fanciful, and exceptional aspects and became completely political and one of the most important and most effective means of the political fight. Such a thing was unprecedented in the political and literary history of the country. Two essential dimensions are seen in the constitutionalism’s literature: one is the criticizing of the past literature and the other is the positing of a novel literature. Zain Al-Abedin Maraghe’ei has the following words in this regard: “these days are not the time in which the masters of pen and thoughts spend their time on simple things, chimerical myths and senseless nonsense like their antecedents for nothing but fiction would result thereof. The present article tries introducing the prominent political figures of the constitutionalism era

Analyzing and examining the concept, dimensions and indicators of transparency in the legislature with a comparative approach

کلید واژه ها: Parliamentary transparency Legislature components of transparency parliamentary information behavioral principles of representatives

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷
The legislative body in the Islamic Republic of Iran is the Islamic Council, which carries the important task of legislating and supervising the implementation of law. Important policies of the government are determined by the Islamic Council and governments are obliged to implement them. In this regard, it should be kept in mind that the Islamic Council is an institution emanating from the people, in fact, it is the crystallization of the views and demands of the general society. Therefore, the application of maximum transparency-oriented policies is one of the necessities of every parliament. In this article with the title "Analysis and review of the concept, dimensions and indicators of transparency in the legislature with a comparative approach" and with the aim of identifying and analyzing the main elements of transparency in the legislature by using the experiences and approaches of some successful countries in This context was carried out with a descriptive and analytical method and by using library sources and texts. The results showed that the transparency of the legislative branch emphasizes the right of the people to access the information of this branch and tries to provide functional information of the parliament and representatives. to provide the ground for monitoring the behavior of the representatives and their performance by the people and also to ensure their participation in the legislative affairs.