Abstract: This study explores emotive language in lyrical nature writing from the perspective of ecolinguistics in four nature textbooks. In fact, embodied mind style is explored by considering emotive language as a linguistic phenomenon that can inject into the readers' minds the sensorial, emotional, and psychological experiences of the lyricist. The interrogation of emotive language is based on Attitude subsystem of Appraisal Analysis, which consists of Affect, Judgment, and Appreciation (Martin & White, 2005). The analyses of the linguistic portrayal of Affect -based on the modified Affect system sub-categories, including Un/Happiness, Dis/Satisfaction, In/Security, Dis/Inclination, and Surprise -revealed the prevalence of Insecurity in the textbooks by contemporary nature writers and Happiness in the textbooks by their predecessors. Moreover, the Judgement and Appreciation analyses suggest that moral sentiment and aesthetic emotion are indispensable parts of lyrical nature writing that can awaken humility and sympathy in the minds and hearts of the readers.
مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Discourse "
The Islamic Revolution, which is a breakthrough in the history of Iran, introduced some new concepts in the arena of national debate. Founded on Shi’ite political thought, this Revolution has in recent years followed a particular theory of justice that has its roots in Shi’ite doctrines, and this is evident in the ideas of Imam Khomeini (r) and the current Supreme Leader. While preserving its originality, the Shi’ite concept of justice has been subject to new readings befitting the requirements of each government. Mahdi Bazargan’s administration considered small government to be the necessary condition for the realization of justice. Muhammad Ali Rajaei’s government, which ruled the country in conditions of war between Iran and Iraq, interpreted justice within the context of struggle against the enemy, and hence adopted as its own policy some doctrines of equity. Mir Hossein Musavi’s government introduced social justice and concern for the oppressed as the main instances of Shi’i justice. Hashemi Rafsanjani saw [economic and industrial] development as the most important requisite for the actualization of justice. Seyyed Mohammad Khatami persued justice under the auspices of some more important concern, namely political development. Finally, in Dr. Mahmud Ahmadinejad's government, the concept of justice refound an Islamic revolutionary and ideological definition. In spite of [continued] developments in the discourse on Shi’ite justice under various governments, Shi’ite principles of the concept of justice have nonetheless been kept intact in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and this shows the presence of a complete theory in the field of political thought in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Nineteenth-century Britain, also known as the Victorian Britain, was the age of prosperity, advancement, the dominance of the British Empire, liberality, and enhancements in diverse social grounds. Through the light of New Historicist approach, the present study comes to critically question the idealism of the Victorian era and particularly that of the 1880s. Through exploring George Bernard Shaw’s Widower’s House it is intended to provide an illuminating understanding of the different aspects of the Victorian England. Focusing on the works of literature, New Historicist critical stadnpoint brings about less subjective views towards the past and a clearer view of all incidents. The present study seeks to demonstrate that England, and more specifically London as the centre of the nineteenth-century world, was not the suggested paradise described in newspapers but rather a city in which poverty enslaved people and suffocated them in dreadful houses built around the city without having basic facilities. Sartorious in Widowers’ Houses , as a brutal slum landlord who keeps his tenants in such a dreadful condition, represents the owners of such indecent houses which have been rented to poor classes of society. This research lastly demonstrates the controversy of the state of the city suggested by authorities and the true state suggested by the author.
A New Approach to Public Policy Studies Relying on the Theory of Critical Discourse Analysis Studies the State as a Discourse
Understanding the policy cycle, as well as scrutinizing the text of hidden and obvious policies and rules, requires a model of discourse analysis based on which discursive ap-proaches of policy makers are understood and estimated. However, when it comes to presenting a policy model, we have to use the views of policy theorists to see how a problem as a "public goods" can be found in the policy agenda setting. Regarding public policy-making procedures, quantitative or descriptive approaches, in studies the state, are often used to pathologizing policies or to obtaining policy advice models. However, this paper attempts to show that studies the state is a discourse that is described by the dominant discursive signifiers in the target society in which policy-makers make mean-ing to concepts. If we assume that the policy making cycle is something other than a several stages, such as defining a problem, finding a solution to it, decision making and implementing, then it is clear that the definition of a problem, whether the presentation of solutions and the process of decision making and its implementation, cannot be out-side the discourse. Therefore, public policy at the macro level and studies the state, as one of its examples and functions, is a discursive, which its understanding is possible only if the dominant discourse and its relation to the realities of the society in question are well understood.