The academic general curriculum is of great importance alongside the specialized curriculum; this field is not only limited to the subject of human knowledge and scientific disciplines, but is also related to the development of personal capabilities, such as the creativity and intellectual abilities, transfer of cultural heritage and values, and the evaluation of committed and accountable citizens. The present study aims to investigate the various areas of the Global Citizenship Education (GCE) in the academic general curriculum in Iran. This is an applied research wherein, a qualitative content analysis method, the thematic analysis (themes), has been applied to the two levels of the selected documents (the law on the goals, duties and organizations of the Ministry of Science, the comprehensive scientific map of Iran, and Iran's sixth development plan) and syllabuses of the general courses approved by the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. The data collection tools included content analysis, note-taking, and a checklist. A descriptive-analytic method was applied to interpret and analyze the data. Based on the research findings, the level of contents associated with globalization has a significant degree of severity and weakness from one course to another in terms of the qualitative aspect. It is certain that most of the contents related to the components of globalization often have indirect links and regarding the positive, negative, and neutral aspects, it can be claimed that the neutral aspect is of considerable significance compared to the other aspects. The qualitative content analysis of the documents and syllabuses of the general courses was done and subsequently, the obtained scheme indicates that the existing approach to the GCE in Iran is a combination of political and civic education approaches, cultural transfer, and the neo-liberal approach, and hence, the educational system should try to train global citizens with an Iranian–Islamic identity. Among the important points in the analysis of the documents is a lack of distinction between globalization and internationalization.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Emergentism: Making the Case for the Philosophical and the Aesthetic
To analyze the relationship between teachers’ freedom and their required pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), I consider emergent curriculum as an extreme end of curricula with a lot of freedom and autonomy for teachers as opposed to a conventional prescribed curriculum in which teachers have less autonomy. In examining teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge from predetermined curriculum toward emergent curriculum, I argue that required PCK is evolving. At the extreme level of teachers’ freedom some substantially new aspects of PCK are needed. One of the most relevant aspects of pedagogical content knowledge for the emergent curriculum curricular knowledge. In emergent curriculum, the teacher acts as a curriculum developer as well, because curriculum is not determined in advance. Curricular knowledge requires teachers to be expert in fields of learning that are not necessary for teachers in other kinds of curriculum. In addition to substantive PCK, teachers of emergent curriculum have to be both philosophers and artists to be qualified enough to make decisions about curricular issues.
The Effectiveness of Social Media Network- Telegram on Teaching English Collocations to Iranian EFL Learners
Technology has a profound influence on schooling in the 21st century and educators are being challenged to incorporate technological innovation to assist students in their learning. Accordingly, the face of learning is changing in general and new technologies are offering students and teachers with tools and occasions unconceivable before. In this respect, this study aimed to investigate the impact of Telegram (as a mobile technology) on collocation learning and retention of Iranian EFL learners. Participants of this study included 120 EFL learns (in two experimental (N= 60) and control (N=60) groups) who received different treatments over the study. Analyzing the results showed that there was a significant difference between the performances of experimental and control groups, of course, in favor of experimental group who confirming the effect of Telegram on improving collocational knowledge. This study implies that using social media network- Telegram has various pedagogical benefits and it can be very promising in EFL instruction.
Designing Desirable Curriculum Goals Based on the Components of Entrepreneurship in Elementary Schools: The Viewpoint of Teachers and Experts
The purpose of this study was to carry out a design on the desirable goals of curricula based on the components of entrepreneurship in the elementary schools from the viewpoint of teachers and experts. Hence, the research employed grounded and applied method. To collect data, a 22-item researcher-made questionnaire was designed in terms of knowledge, attitude, and skill. The sample size of 289 teachers was used using the Cochran formula, the entire statistical population was sampled as the statistical population of experts was limited. A random stratified sampling method was used to select the teachers’ sample. Frequency and percentages were used to analyze the data at the descriptive statistics level. In inferential statistics, chi-square test was used at 5% significance level. The results of the research revealed that, from the viewpoint of teachers and specialists, the desirable goals in the entrepreneurial curriculum were well suited to the dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and skills.
The purpose of the present study is to measure the dominant curriculum orientation of faculty members at University of Kurdistan. In terms of purpose, this is applied study, and in terms of data collection methods, it is a descriptive survey. The target population consisted of all faculty members who were teaching during the 2014-2015 academic year at University of Kurdistan. To collect the data, the census method was employed due to the limited number of the participants. The data collection tools were the “curriculum orientations inventory (COI)” developed by Cheung and Wong (2002) and modified by Mahlios, Rice and Thomas (2004). The results of the study showed that cognitive process and academic rationalism were the most dominant orientations of the faculty members. The results also showed that there is a positive relationship between the faculty members' curriculum orientation and their expertise.
Modeling, Bedding and Planning in Flipped Learning Process in Educational System of Medical Sciences University of Babul
Purpose : The aim of this study was to Modeling, bedding and planning in Flipped learning process in educational system of Medical Sciences University of Babul Methods : The research design was exploratory mixed type. Statistical population in the qualitative section of academic experts and members of the Education and Empowerment Committee of Medical Universities Babol and in the quantitative section; The staff of the Vice Chancellor for Management and Resources Development was the Health and Education Unit of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences; In the qualitative section, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 experts using the snowball sampling method, and in the quantitative section, a questionnaire was used to measure the model using the multi-stage relative class method among 310 samples. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by face and content method and the reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha method. Data were analyzed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with SPSS and Smart PLS software. Findings : The results showed that the Flipped learning process has 12 dimensions in terms of learning motivation, individual factors, organizational culture factors, structural factors, the establishment of Flipped learning, facilitation measures, organizational barriers and challenges, non-organizational barriers and challenges, bedrock and planning, awareness, quality of education and quality of learning. The results of the quantitative section showed that all dimensions of the research paradigm model were confirmed. Conclusion : It is recommended to the officials of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences; to provide the necessary conditions for the establishment of Flipped learning, make the necessary arrangements according to the results of the present study
The Effect of the Idea of Education Content Knowledge on the Planning and Development of Faculty Members in Farhangian University, Region 2 of the Country
Purpose : The impact of content knowledge idea instruction on teaching quality of Farhangian University faculty members of Region 9 of Iran. Method : This applied study was conducted with a mixed approach using a qualitative and quantitative approach. In the qualitative section, the statistical population included 20 professors of Farhangian University in Region 9, 10 of who were selected by purposive sampling method based on saturation law, and 263 faculty members, professors and visiting lecturers of Farhangian University in Region 9 of the country. Including (Semnan, Mazandaran and Golestan) were in the quantitative section that 156 of them were selected as a sample using random sampling method classified according to Cochran's formula. To collect data, two content knowledge education questionnaires (researcher-made) with 82 questions and the development of faculty members of Qoroneh et al. With 93 questions were used. The validity and validity of the instruments were confirmed by the supervisors and consultants and the combined reliability and Cronbach's alpha were calculated higher than 0.7. SPSS21 and PLS3.2 software and structural equations were used for data analysis. Findings : The results of structural equation test showed that the effect of content knowledge of education and training on the development of faculty members in Farhangian University, Region 9 was positive and significant. Conclusion : The results showed that the effect of content knowledge of education on the development of faculty members in Farhangian University in 9 countries has been significant.
Identifying and Ranking the Dimensions of Resonant Leadership with the Curriculum Planning Approach in Schools of Education of Mazandaran Province
Purpose : This Research was conducted with the aim of identifying and ranking the dimensions of resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach in schools of education of Mazandaran province. Methods : This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was descriptive from type of survey. The study population was school managers of Mazandaran province in the 2018-19 academic years with number of 4865 people. The research sample according to Cochran's formula was estimated 359 people who were selected based on multi-step cluster sampling method with respect to the ratio of courses. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire whose face and content validity was confirmed by expert’s opinion and tool construct validity was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and its reliability was calculated 0.87 by Cronbach’s alpha method. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and Friedman test in SPSS software version 19. Finding : The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the dimensions of resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach in schools had five leadership dimensions including the coaching (5 items), linking (5 items), psychological (5 items), democratic (4 items) and deep-view (4 items) that these five dimensions together were able to explain 80.04% of the total variance. The results of Friedman test showed that the leaderships dimensions of coaching, linking, psychological, democratic and deep-view had higher ranks, respectively. Conclusion : Based on the results of the present study, in order to improve resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach, can be improved the leaderships dimensions of coaching, linking, psychological, democratic and deep-view, respectively via workshops.
Examining the Philosophical Foundations of the Model of Teaching Gifted Students in Finland and Presenting the Model
The present study was conducted with the aim of examining the philosophical foundations of the model for identifying and educating gifted students in Finland and providing a model for elementary students. The method of the present study was correlational in terms of data collection and descriptive research in terms of method and applied research in terms of purpose. The population and the sample of the present study were Finland, which were selected using purposive sampling. In the construction of the tools, the theoretical content of the pattern of identifying and educating gifted students in Finland was first analyzed using the content analysis method. Then, using the results of a qualitative study based on the data foundation approach (exploratory) and the Delphi method, resulting from interviews with 7 education professionals who had experience in Finland and were familiar with its education system in elementary school. Existing components were developed. The questionnaire consisted of 54 initial questions and 57 final questions on a five-point scale. The reliability of this tool was calculated using Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. The results of factor analysis showed that the pattern of education of gifted students in Finland was obtained with 8 factors, which were the lack of formal exams and training, intelligence, teacher independence and stability, human and positive communication, complete teacher autonomy in choosing curriculum, Up-to-date educational technology, kind and optimistic teachers and students. Since the philosophical basis of Finland is to educate gifted students of existentialism and the school of constructionism. Therefore, it is suggested that a humane approach based on student needs and problem-oriented approach to education and give real value to students and teachers.
Designing an Effective Professional Ethics Model in Training from the Perspective of Heads and Deputies of Education of Tehran Province
Purpose : This aim of present research was designing an effective professional ethics model in training from the perspective of heads and deputies of education of Tehran province. Methods : This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was mixed (qualitative and quantitative). The research population in both qualitative and quantitative sections was the heads and deputies of education in 2019-20 academic years. The research sample in the qualitative section according to the theoretical saturation principle was 40 people who were selected by purposive sampling method and in the quantitative section according to Cochran's formula were 230 people who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research instruments were the semi-structured interview and a researcher-made questionnaire whose psychometric indicators were confirmed. Data were analyzed with using methods of open, axial and selective coding, exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in SPSS and LISREL software. Finding : The results of both qualitative and quantitative sections showed that effective professional ethics in training had 40 indicators and 9 components including self-efficacy, scientific responsibility, individual ethics, managerial factors, organizational factors, job ethics, extra-organizational factors, social responsibility and belonging to scientific society. Also, the effective professional ethics model in training had a good fit and all 9 components had a significant effect on the mentioned model (P <0.05). Conclusion : According to the results, planning to improve the effective professions ethics in education is necessary by experts and planners. As a result, they can enhance the components of self-efficacy, scientific responsibility, individual ethics, managerial factors, organizational factors, job ethics, extra-organizational factors, social responsibility and belonging to scientific society
Identifying the Components of the Fourth Generation University to Improve the Quality of Education and Research in Islamic Azad Universities
Purpose : The aim of this research was identifying the components of the fourth generation university to improve the quality of education and research in Islamic Azad universities. Methodology : This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was mixed (qualitative and quantitative). The research population in the qualitative section was expert professors of educational sciences in Mazandaran province in 2019 year which according to the principle of theoretical saturation, 15 of them was selected by snowball sampling method. The research population in the quantitative section was faculty members of Islamic Azad universities of Mazandaran province in 2019 year with number of 1487 people which according to Cochran's formula, 305 people were selected by cluster sampling method by observing the ratio of the number of faculty members in university units. For data collection in the qualitative section were used from text review and semi-structured interview and in the quantitative section were used from 83 items researcher-made questionnaire that their psychometric indices were confirmed. Data were analyzed by methods of open, axial and selective coding and exploratory factor analysis in Maxqda2018 and SPSS-22 software. Finding : The findings of the qualitative section showed that the fourth generation university to improve the quality of education and research had 83 open codes, 16 axial codes or component and six selected codes or categories, which were included categories and components of causal conditions (with three components of scientific-social responsibility, environmental dynamics and organizational mission), contextual conditions (with three components of organizational values and structure, facilities and equipment and motivation), axial phenomenon (with one component of the role play of fourth generation university), interventions conditions (with three components of relationship with industry, organizing educational content and library empowerment), strategies (with four components of inclusive quality management, development of fields and mutual cooperation, faculty members participation in decision-making and interaction and teamwork) and outcomes (with two components of quality of educational and quality of research). The findings of the quantitative section showed that the fourth generation university to improve the quality of education and research had 16 components were included of scientific-social responsibility, environmental dynamics, organizational mission, organizational values and structure, facilities and equipment, motivation, role play of fourth generation university, relationship with industry, organizing educational content, library empowerment, inclusive quality management, development of fields and mutual cooperation, faculty members participation in decision-making, interaction and teamwork, quality of educational and quality of research which all of them had a good factor load and they together could explain 85.37% of the total variance. Conclusion : According to the results, higher education specialists and planners can design and implement programs to improve the quality of education and research in Islamic Azad universities by promoting the components of the fourth generation university.
Designing and Validating the Optimal Model of Extracurricular Curriculum for Junior High School Students with a Social Harms Prevention Approach
Purpose : The aim of this study was to design and validate an extracurricular curriculum model in junior high school with a social harm prevention approach. Methodology : In this study, the methods of qualitative content analysis, documentary method and descriptive-inferential method were used. The samples for data collection were 20 experts in the field of education and 10 sources related to extracurricular activities in education who were selected by non-probability sampling method of snowball or chain. Data collection techniques were semi-structured individual interviews with extracurricular curriculum specialists and qualitative analysis of texts. The data obtained from the interviews were analytically coded and analyzed using SPSS software. Findings : The findings of this study identified the characteristics of extracurricular curriculum elements with social harm prevention approach for purpose, content, teaching learning strategies and evaluation, respectively, and the initial model of extracurricular curriculum with harm prevention approach. The model was approved after validation by exprts and experts and the implementation of adjustments. The results of this research can be used in the design of extracurricular curriculum in junior high school. Conclusion : According to the research findings, students who participate in extracurricular activities have more social adjustment.