Purpose - Nowadays due to the variety of hazards and inappropriate location of some villages, the necessity of their displacement and resettlement is sometimes unavoidable. In order to resettle the villages, they should consider a wide range of social, economic, environmental and political issues so that resettled villages can survive. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of resettlement on the quality of life of the earthquake-stricken villages and explain the factors affecting it in the resettled villages of Varzaghan County. Design/methodology/approach - The research methodology is descriptive and analytical and the required data were collected using the questionnaire instrument. The study population was 7975 people living in 11 resettled villages in Varzeghan County. The sample size was 382 people who were randomly selected. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its reliability was also obtained 0.921 using Cronbach Formula. Finding- Results indicate that the quality of life of villages in Likert six-point scale was equal to 3.47, and the highest and lowest levels of satisfaction are related to the areas of infrastructure, employment and income. In addition, the results of the factorial analysis were identified in four dimensions for quality of life. In this regard, the four factors of physical, economy, psychology, and housing clearly explain the 90.95% of the variance of quality of life. The results of T, Tukey, and Scheffe tests also showed a significant difference between the resettlement patterns and the quadruple dimensions of quality of life. Practical implications- With respect to the importance of quality of life in the development and welfare of human societies in resettlement projects, it is necessary to considerate the effects and consequences concerning the quality of life in addition to selecting the optimal rural site in order to improve the residents’ wellbeing while identifying the strengths and weaknesses of these projects.
Purpose- Ineffectiveness and unsustainability of classic approaches to respond to socioeconomic challenges in rural areas is one of the biggest barriers to sustainable development and achieving its goals. Hence, modern tourism as a new strategy has been able to be effective in the evolution of sustainable development in rural areas. Such that today emergence of postmodern tourism has made the tourists be more willing to use cultural attractions and unique experiences in tourism destinations, and the big entertaining places are not attractive to them anymore. On the other hand, rural areas have constantly faced difficulties in attracting tourists because of poverty and economic problems; therefore, creative tourism has been presented as an appropriate approach in developing rural tourism, since it does not need huge investments and uses the existing cultural and natural aspects. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the role of creative tourism in rural sustainable development and ranking the sample villages according creative tourism components. Design/methodology/approach- The present study is an applied study with regard to function and is a descriptive-analytic study with regard to its nature. We used field and library methods based on observation and questionnaire for data collection. Validity of the questionnaire items was confirmed by experts and using Cronbach alpha formula (0.856). The statistic population includes the households of six historic-cultural villages in northwest of Iran; 313 household heads were randomly selected using the Cochran formula. Statistical tests such as one sample t-test, multi-variate linear regression, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for data analysis. Findings- The results indicated that the mean values are higher than 3 for all the components of creative tourism except risk taking which is 2.99; the components are also significant at 0.01 level indicating desirable conditions of the target villages with regard to creative tourism. Investigation of regression fitness model indicated that 0.83 of the positive effect of tourism on rural sustainable development is due to creativity in tourism. Also, according to beta values, among the five components of creative tourism, participation (0.286) and and risk taking (0.181) were the most and least effective factors in rural sustainable development through tourism, respectively. The results of Kruskal–Wallis test indicated that Kandovan (65.257) was at the first rank and Varkaneh (41.71) was at the sixth rank with regard to creative tourism and the consequent sustainable development.
Purpose- In the present study, the impact of the household head's features on poverty and its intensity in rural households was investigated using the data related to income cost of rural households of West Azerbaijan during 2014. Design/methodology/approach- To this end, the relative poverty line of the rural households was first estimated in this study. Then, the effect of household characteristics on the intensity of poverty and its incidence was examined as well. The two-step Heckman model was used in this regard through which the impact of variables on household poverty was explored and the likelihood of household poverty was calculated. Afterward, assessing the poverty intensity of poor households, the effect of the study variables on the intensity of poverty of these households was investigated. Findings- The results of the study showed that the age, marital status, employment, and literacy level of the household head had a significantly positive effect on decreasing the incidence of poverty of the households. In addition, being married, the higher level of education, and employment of the household head, and also increasing the number of employed members in the household alleviated the severity of poverty among rural households. Research limitations/implications- The main limitation of this study was the lack of direct access to statistics and that extraction of data from micro- households was time-consuming. Practical implications- Considering the high probability of poverty at the beginning of the young age and retirement, actions must be taken to minimize the negative consequences of poverty in these ages through appropriate social security systems. Furthermore, given that being married reduces the incidence of poverty, careful planning is required to increase employment opportunities, to develop the culture of marriage, and therefore, to reduce the level of divorce in the society. Originality/value- In this article, an attempt has been made to study the influence of individual characteristics of the household head on poverty incidence and its severity in rural households of West Azerbaijan Province using the relative poverty line system. Moreover, based on the aim of the study, the severity of poverty and its incidence are to be separately investigated.
Purpose- Due to the dewatering of Karun Dam, the village of Southern Donbaleh Roud of Izeh County has been surrounded by water since 2004 until now and has been deprived of services and amenities and communication. Moreover, their access to the cities of Dehdez and Izeh has been limited. Given the importance of the issue, the aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the sustainability of development in rural areas of Southern Donbaleh Roud District. Design/methodology/approach- This research is based on the applied purpose and has an analytical- descriptive nature. Required data were collected using library and field (questionnaire) method. The area under study includes 18 villages and 1460 households. The sample size was estimated based on Cochran formula of 300 family guardians and the questionnaires were distributed among them. To analyze the data from the questionnaire, the Prometheus model (in the visual Prometheus software environment) and the fuzzy inference system (in MATLAB software) were used. Finding- Based on the Prometheus model, the villages are ranked according to three positive (Phi+), negative (Phi-) and pure flows. The villages with the highest positive minimum negative flows are in the first place, and the villages with the least positive and the most negative flows are at the last place of development sustainability. The results obtained from the Fuzzy inference system also indicate that the sustainability of the studied rural area is between the medium and low levels. Originality/value - There have been a lot of changes in spatial organization of the studied villages due to water logging of the villages. These changes have created disruptions in the system and functioning of the settlements and have affected the quality of life and wellbeing of the inhabitants. Because the construction of dams has destroyed the communicative routes between villages and the city, agricultural lands and gardens, schools, rural healthcare centers, residential houses, provincial villages and… and the villages have been left behind the dam so far. Therefore, considering the special circumstances of these settlements, the problems of these villages have been scientifically examined and addressed to planners and officials. Because, through this, the authorities and development experts gain knowledge about the opportunities and capabilities, limitations and impasse of the villages.
Purpose- Today, tourism has become the largest industry in the world with both direct and indirect socio-economic effects. Given the diverse climatic conditions and limited water resources for agriculture in Iran, among various forms of tourism, tourism in desert areas with a multifaceted approach can narrow the gap caused by environmental constraints and play an important role in the development of different areas such as eastern regions of Isfahan province, which have many tourist attractions. In this research, we try to identify and evaluate land suitability for tourism development in counties located in desert areas of Isfahan province. Design/methodology/approach- In this research, the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method was used in the GIS environment. Considering the variety of criteria used, before preparing the final map of land suitability, selected criteria were categorized in different groups with regard to topography, climate, land covers and animal species diversity, environment, hazards, socio-economic aspects. Then, land suitability classes in each of the mentioned groups were identified. In the following step, the maps produced in each of these groups were given to the relevant experts to generate the final map of the land suitability according to the current situation, weigh the selected criteria based on the AHP paired comparison, and implement the results of this comparison in the GIS environment through applying weighted linear combination (WLC) method. Findings - The results of multi-criteria evaluation showed that the study area has highly suitable lands in almost all assessment groups, and there were no specific human and natural constraints in this area. The result of the final land suitability map also showed that 21044 square kilometers of the total area (nearly 30 percent) were ranked in the “very suitable” and “suitable” classes, indicating high capacity and capabilities or minimum natural and human constraints for tourism development in the region. Practical implications- Making use of the capabilities of desert areas in eastern regions of Isfahan province and providing the necessary conditions for tourism development with regard to the particular natural and human conditions of this region can offer the best available, affordable, and effective alternatives in the short term to tackle the current problems based on the principles of sustainable development in these areas. The problems include socioeconomic inequalities between developed and underdeveloped regions of Isfahan province, limited water resources for development of agricultural activities, and low ecological capacity of the region for some activities especially in vulnerable communities.
Purpose- This study aimed to determine the constructive components of livable rural communities. To this end, it investigates the status of livability from the viewpoint of rural population in villages of Kashmar County. Design/methodology/approach- This is a descriptive-analytic study. In the first stage, indicators were extracted by reviewing the relevant literature. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the Likert scale. Using the Cochran formula, 350 samples were selected and were randomly distributed. Finally, the data were analyzed using the SPSS software and employing correlation and Friedman tests. Finding- The results of the Spearman test showed no significant relationship between individual characteristics (age, sex, education) and livability indicators. On the other hand, the results of the Friedman test revealed that villages have higher livability in terms of the environmental dimension than other dimensions. In terms of the social dimension, recreation and leisure time indicator had the highest rank from respondents’ viewpoint (5.50), and other indicators were also effective in varying degrees. Respondents were more satisfied with public space than other indicators. Originality/value - Due to the novelty of the subject in Iran, and since it has received low attention in the relevant global literature, more time is needed to carry out further studies. The results of this study may be useful for rural officials and planners, rural students and researchers.
Purpose- The inefficiency of rural development policy as a multidimensional phenomenon is due to various factors and causes. It has adverse outcomes in rural areas and in different dimensions of the territorial (spatial), organizational and intersectoral activities. Since the present study has practical purposes, the analysis of the effective factors, and analysis of the effects of each factor in the process of inefficiency of rural spatial policies in rural areas are considered. Design/Methodology/Approach - The strategic question is: “What are the factors affecting the ineffectiveness of the planning policy for rural development in Iran?” To answer the question, an analytical methodology based on Delphi tool and interpretive structural modeling have been used. In this regard, a library method (research background) and questionnaires and interviews (experts’ opinions of the National Planning and Budget Organization, and the Provincial Management and Planning Organization- 20 people) were used to collect information. Factors contributing to the inefficiency of planning policy for rural development in Iran were determined. In the next step, using Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM), the relationships between the factors affecting the ineffectiveness of the planning policy for rural development in Iran were specified and analyzed in a unified manner. Finally, using the MICMAC analysis, the types of variables are clustered according to the reciprocal influence on other variables . Findings- The results show that the factors of over-dependence on oil revenues, unstable rural development policy and centralized policy-making system, planning and decision making with the driving power of 16 have had the greatest influence and acts like the base of the model. In order to start and reform the structure of the rural development policy system in the country, it should be emphasized first. The factor of diversity, plurality, dispersion and underdevelopment of rural settlements with the driving power of 1 has the least influence.
Purpose- This study tries to evaluate rural governance and identify its effective factors in a rural area, around Karaj Metropolis, for the achievement of local governance in central Iran. Design/Methodology/Approach - In terms of goal and nature, it is practical, while with regards to its methodology, it serves as a survey. The statistical populations of this research include 53 rural managers of rural settlements as rural governors (Dehyar), 105 rural councils, and 366 heads of village households, selected based on classification sampling within a multi-stage process. Both techniques of PROMETHEE and Analytic Network Process (ANP) have been employed for analysis, level evaluation, and classification of governance in the studied rural area. Findings- Based on the parametric method, results show that out of 53 studied local government, 53% had good governance; 25%, average governance; and 22%, weak governance. Furthermore, based on ANP Technique, the rural district (Dehestan) of Adran had the highest governance rank, while the rural district of Kamal Abad had the lowest. In general, the findings show that governance level in the studied local governments were quite desirable. Research limitations/Implications- Governance is a multidimensional issue with various definitions and theories thereof the villagers’ attitude towards rural governance and its indicators is restricted. Practical implications- In the study area, rural governance is in a good position, but some of the rural governance components and indicators are in an unsatisfactory and critical situation and require serious attention for improvement. Originality/Value- So far, there has been little attention paid to rural governance in the cities, especially in the peripheral regions of metropolitan areas. Accordingly, the present study is of considerable importance.
Purpose - In a good governance pattern with a broad participation of people, increasing self-reliance, pluralism, cooperation between actors, and the transfer of power to local levels can be key to solving the problem of rural development, increasing the quality of settlements and the quality of life of villagers; hence creating sustainable villages. Accordingly, the main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of good governance on the increase of the physical quality of rural settlements. Design/methodology/approach- The present study is descriptive-analytic. Questionnaires were used to collect data. After applying the Cochran formula, 192 questionnaires were prepared. The population of this study is 13 villages with local managers in Neyshbur. In order to measure the purpose and analyze data, one-sample T-test, Pearson correlation and structural equation modeling using smart PLS software were used. Finding- The results of the research showed that, based on the T-test, there was not a favorable situation in both good rural governance and physical quality of rural settlements. Based on Pearson's test, it was found that in the seven villages of Khanlogh, Sarachah, Bashnij, Mobarakeh, Bahrodi, Hoseinabad and Mirabad the relationship between good governance and physical quality of rural settlements was significant. The results of the PLS model also indicated that a good rural governance of 62% affects the improvement of the physical quality of rural settlements. Practical implications- Proposals that can be effective in improving good governance practice in order to improve the physical quality of rural settlements include: informing and educating people about the principle of construction in villages, effort-making of local managers to attract the cooperation of relevant organizations to improve the physical quality of rural settlements, creating a suitable field for attracting people's conscious participation in improving their physical condition, creating coordination and interaction between local managers to solve physical problems in the village. Originality/value - This study was innovative because it focused on the impact of good rural governance on the increase of the physical quality of rural settlements. In fact, in this research for each of these two variables, separate indices have been considered and the relationship between them has been evaluated.