Purpose- During recent decades, rural settlements in developing countries have undergone significant changes in global development and in pursuit of development, in accordance with the geographic conditions governing them. The intensity and direction of these changes have been different. The study of functional changes of rural settlements located in the central district of Ravansar County is the main objective of this study. Design/methodology/approach- This applied research is a qualitative research that has been carried out using Grounded Theory Method. The methodological approach of the dominant theory in this research is the Glaser’s (1978) approach. Finding- The findings of the research indicate that during a systematic process, rural subsistences have progressed towards gradual economic development through the two concepts of agrarian reforms and mechanization of the agricultural sector. This positive trend, with institutional interferences and inefficient rural development policies, the economic downturns of villages have finally provided the ground for the functional development of villages through the implementation of inheritance law, poor management of environmental resources, cross-sectoral supportive policies, and targeted subsidies. This functional development of villages has many symbols, including a strong tendency towards service activities, the prevalence of consumerism, the formation of affiliated villages, a strong market dependence, and so on. It should be noted that in the present research, "inefficient rural development policies" have been identified as a central issue. Research limitations/implications- Low familiarity of the rural population with Persian language (due to the fact that the inhabitants of the study area are Kurds), the high cost of commuting to the villages, the difficulty of establishing trust with villagers, and the lack of welcoming support from institutions related to rural affairs for the researchers in the various stages of the research were the most important limitations of this research. Practical implications- A fundamental revision of rural development policies in view of the changes that have taken place in rural settlements, in accordance with the geographic conditions governing them, is the most important scientific solution of the present research. Originality/value- In the current research, for the first time in Iran, functional changes in villages have been deeply studied through Grounded Theory Method.
Purpose- The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tourism development in the promotion of social welfare in rural East Azerbaijan province. Design/methodology/approach- The research paper is based on analytical-explanatory technique; it was carried out through a survey. The research population comprises the residents of the tourist villages. Five hundred (500) participants were selected as the sample size based on Cochran formula. Experts confirmed the face validity of the questionnaire. They performed a pilot study on 60 questionnaires within the same region. The applied questionnaire was 0.885 to 0.894 reliable based on the obtained data using Cronbach alpha. Finding- Spearman’s correlation test revealed that all research variables were positively and significantly related to tourism except sense of safety and security as well as improvement of consumption patterns. In addition, results of Mann-Whitney test showed that tourism and social welfare were more associated with tourist villages of East Azerbaijan than that of other non-tourist villages. In addition, the results of regression analysis revealed that 9 variables out of 11 obtained 89% of the variations. Accordingly, the variables of quality of life, occupation, and future expectancy have been more effective. Research limitations/implications- The recommendations in this research paper can be used in different areas of tourism management and development of villages in this region.
Purpose- The present study aims at examining the adaptability of physical features to feeling of security among the residents of the rural area of Toos. The achievements are supposed to be used in quality improvement of rural guidance plans in line with increasing security potentials of rural areas. Design/methodology/approach- The methodology of this study is correlative, and data collection was performed through library and field studies. The extracted physical indices were obtained from the studies and rural guidance maps, while feeling of security index was obtained through 386 researcher-made questionnaires filled by the residents of 13 villages in the countryside of Mashhad in Toos rural area. The validity of the questionnaires was confirmed through an expert board and their reliability in the security feeling variable was confirmed by Cronbach alpha 0.8. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Finding- The findings of the study indicated a significant negative correlation between many of the form and morphology indices of feeling of security. The correlation between the size of the village and feeling of security is significant and equals to -0.804. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between population density and feeling of security which was equal to 0.592. Among the functional status indices, we can refer to an inverse moderate correlation between the distribution of services and the scale of land uses. Accessibility index indicates a strong inverse relationship of impenetrability (with correlation coefficient of 0.670) and the design of dead-end and narrow streets with feeling of security. Research limitations/implications- The limitation of this study includes the bureaucracy of the administrative network, lack of official data and the time-consuming data collection. Practical implications- Generally, the confirmation of the strong relationship among most of the variables indicates that it is required to develop principles of secured places and to give more consideration to the physical security in rural guidance plans, which are the most important related documents in the country. Originality/value- The relationship between them has been ignored in rural areas in spite of the extended volume of rural guidance plans based on their physical context, as well as insecurity of the rural areas at the urban fringe.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sustainable rural quality of life index in Iran during the period of 1991-2016 and to measure the effects of various government investments on this index. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from the Statistics Center, the Central Bank and the World Bank. The value of the quality of life indicator was calculated using the software Eviews during the course of the study. The effect of independent research variables including government investment in agriculture, education, health, and rural development using the ARDL model in Microfit software is estimated. Finding: The results of the model estimation in the short run indicate that every 1 percent increase in government investment in agricultural sectors was 0.55 percent, health and treatment 0.54 percent, education 31.3 percent, increase the quality of life respectively. But investment in rural development does not affect quality of life in the short term but investment in rural life does not affect in the short term. In the long run, every 1% increase in investment in agricultural sectors is 0.65%, health and treatment 0.64%, education 45.0% and 32% in rural development in improving quality of life and its sustainability respectively. Research limitations/implications: Access to statistics is very difficult and has been obtained through reviewing all budget rules for the research courses. Practical implications: Strategy for employment to villagers with the support of public policy, based on qualify for investment, jobs, and services in rural areas contributes to the strengthening of agriculture, the changes in agricultural production and natural resources, the creation of jobs in non-farm income and as a result, the increased demand for local agricultural and non-agricultural products. Originality/value: Considering sustainable factors in evaluating quality of life and the effect of government investment in rural life by the applied method are the advantages of this study that has not been studied in previous studies.
Purpose- This study aimed to analyze the effects of saffron cultivation on the quality of life of rural households in Rostaq Dehestan in Khalilabad county. Design/methodology/approach- This is an applied study based on a descriptive-analytical method used to examine the understudy parameters. The data were collected from 337 sample households based on field studies and by the Cochran sampling method. Then, the data were also collected based on selected indicators and using a household questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by the university professors of geography and rural planning and agricultural promotion and training. The validity coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained using the SPSS software of 0.85. Kendall's statistical tests and one-way variance analysis was used in SPSS software to analyze the collected data. Findings- The research findings show that Neghab village with a similarity index of 0.48 has the greatest impact of saffron cultivation on the quality of life of the households among the villages of Rostaq Dehestan. On the other hand, the results of the Kendall test confirmed the relationship between saffron cultivation and quality of life with 99% confidence. Moreover, the results of one-way ANOVA showed that the economic dimension among other effective dimensions of the saffron cultivation on the quality of rural households is more pronounced. Research limitations/implications- The lack of access to statistical information when visiting the Agricultural Jihad of Khalilabad, Khalilabad Governorship, the Natural Resources Administration of Khalilabad, as well as completing the questionnaire depending on the issue at the village level are some of the challenges of the present study. Practical implications- According to the research findings, solutions to promote and train the ways for production and productivity of households in this village are recommended for the cultivation of this supra-strategic product (Saffron). Originality/value- The present study is important since it focuses on the impact of saffron cultivation for improving the quality of life of rural households with respect to the income generation process of this product.
Purpose: Evaluation of zoonotic diseases have existed since the beginning of human life on earth, but in recent decades it has become much more important. Today, zoonotic diseases not only important in health area, but also in international economics and politics are also special place are important. the main objective of the present article is to assess the impact of the physical quality livestock building on the development of human and animal health in rural areas. Methodology: In this regard, a survey method has been used. After applying the Cochran formula, 382 questionnaires were prepared in the form of a form and a questionnaire. case study is rural regions of Firouzeh county. For measure the research hypotheses, Binomial test and Linear Regression and TOPSIS has been used. Therefore, the research method is descriptive and analytical. Results: Binomial test results show that the villages are unfavorable in terms of physical quality of livestock buildings. Linear regression results show that increased physical quality of livestock buildings has a direct impact on the development of livestock and human health. Also according to TOPSIS, Taghiabad village, Nayerabad and Shorab are ranked first to third in terms of the high quality of livestock buildings. Practical solutions: Provide trifle and long term loans to ranchers, making changes to the old buildings keeping the livestock according to the quality standards of the livestock building, having a regular program for washing and cleaning the livestock building, more systematic monitoring of health centers by collecting livestock excrements and preventing the accumulation of waste at public passages are suggestions that can help improve the quality of livestock building and human health. Significance of the Study: Regarding the approach to physical quality and its impact on the development of human health and livestock in rural areas and in terms of the area studied, this research has been the first research on the health of animals and humans in rural areas (Firouzeh villages).
Purpose- The present applied survey has been done for the purpose of the evaluation of function quality and effectiveness of Malakhord borderline market on the changes of villagers’ life quality level in Dezli Dehestan of Sarvabad County. Design/methodology/approach- This research is descriptive-analytic from the view point of method and library and field methods have been used on the basis of questionnaire distribution and interview to collect data. The sample size includes 250 people from the head of the households of active villages in the market that their number was specified using Corcoran formula and the questionnaires were distributed according to their class among the sample villages and distributed randomly among the head of the households. Findings- The analysis of the data using descriptive statistics indexes and the tests of inferential statistics (Chi-Square, one-sample t-test, Friedman test, Paired Samples t-test, path analysis) showed that generally the market has caused the improvement of the villagers’ life quality level in comparison to the previous period before the establishment of it and it is this economic aspect of the villagers that has had the most improvement and positive change. Research limitations/implications- Being faraway, the dispersion and the location of a large number of villages in the zero region, the villagers lack of familiarity with questionnaire completion, and not accessing easily to family guardians with the questionnaires were among the imitations of this survey. Practical implications- According to the survey findings, solutions like the improvement of the roadways to the market, the will of domestic organizations to prevent sectional holidays, the improvement of services and welfare facilities across the market, using local people to manage and coordinate the market affairs, exporting the villagers’ products to the neighboring country, allocating a part of the market income to the construction and physical development of the villages, and devoting another part to the young villagers looking for jobs as loan are suggested. Originality/value- Trading in the form of borderline markets, purposefully and lawfully, can pave the way for economic, social and physical development of the borderline rural areas and as a result will prevent migration, population leaving and the instability of the villages that can have negative consequences in the local, regional and national level.
Purpose - Several models of rural development have been proposed but they have failed to adequately explain why development stagnates in certain regions. To fill this knowledge gap, this qualitative research was conducted. Design/methodology/approach- Based on focus group interviews with farmers and semi-structured interviews with rural managers and experts from two sub-counties in Kherameh, Fars province, the barriers of rural development under drought were investigated. Finding- Various adaptation strategies, such as changing cropping pattern, developing greenhouses and rising mushroom, quail and ostrich, have been applied by farmers in order to reduce the negative impacts of drought and water scarcity. However, different barriers including climate variability, quantitative and qualitative reduction of water resources, unemployment and lack of sustainable job opportunities, limitation of financial resources and investment, inefficiency of institutional supporting policies, limitation of budgets and loans, and uncertainty about future of agriculture have prevented rural areas from development. Practical implications - Continuous monitoring of drought and developing early warning systems, consensus about distribution of common water resources, water conveyance from other regions and considering water subsides, local participation in development planning, encouraging research institutes to focus their research on investigating and producing water resistance crops, improving drought management information through effective extension services and linking urban-based businesses with small-scale crop producers are offered to improve rural development in this drought prone area. Originality/value- Given that a similar study has not been conducted about rural development traps under drought, the findings of this study can be used by rural development planners and practitioners.
Purpose- The present study has two major purposes; the first of which is the identification of the key propellants in the essence of the brand of target tourism villages of Saman County in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, and the second purpose is prioritizing of the effective key propellants in the essence of the brand of target tourism villages of Saman County in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province. Design/methodology/approach- This study is an applied one, and data are collected using a descriptive-survey method. To collect data, three types of questionnaires have been used for three groups of the local community, visitors, and experts. According to Morgan table, the sample size of the visitors and the local community are 384 samples, and 365 examples, respectively, and the sample size of the experts, with Delphi technique, was 25. To analyze the samples, one-sample T-test and Mann-Whitney U-Test using SPSS software and structural analysis (paired squares) using MICMAC software were used. Findings: The results of this research showed that the most effective key propellants in the essence of the brand of target tourism villages of Saman County in priority order are, 1. gardens, 2. water-based tourism, 3. place attachment, 4. plants and animals species, 5. the opportunity for relaxing, 6. beautiful landscapes, 7. rural accommodations. Research Limitations/Implications: The high cost of the research and the required time to fill out the questionnaires, with regard to the extent of the study area, were among the main challenges facing the present study. Originality/Value: The present study is looking for a model and method for making a sustainable brand that not only give identity to the local community but also it is attractive to tourists and fulfills experts’ views. So, the present model has the mentioned features.