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حقوق ارتباطات حقوق بین الملل حقوق تجارت بین المللی و اقتصادی حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی حقوق خصوصی حقوق عمومی فقه و حقوق کلیات گرایش های جدید حقوقی گروه های ویژه نقد و بررسی کتاب
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Seas are the most important and unexplored and unknown ecosystems and the largest source of biodiversity on earth, which make up 90% of the biosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the marine environment as a precious asset and heritage against the damages caused by human activities, including international shipping. One of the international means to achieve this aim is the port state control (PSC) mechanism, PSC which is rooted in the traditional principle of free access of ships to the ports, also international conventions and regional memorandum of understandings )MoU’s( is considered complementary to the competencies of the flag state for environmental protection and maritime safety, allows the port states to assess the compliance of ships with relevant international and regional regulations, and to carry out a non-discriminatory inspection of foreign ships entering their ports. this paper review and criticize the role of current PSC mechanisms in the protection of the marine environment. To that end, use of the descriptive-analytical method to explaining the concept and legal foundations of PSC and the most important environmental challenges caused by the Increasing growth of international shipping and analyze the role of PSC. This study's findings provide that, the international PSC regime suffers some defects, accordingly to be more effective needs to mutation, in a way that includes new environmental damages, as well as, increase international convergence and integration in its Implementation This goal is achieved through the conclusion of a global MoU.
Maritime Defense Diplomacy of Maritime Powers in the Indian Ocean Based on Their Presence in The Region(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۸, Wintert ۲۰۲۳ 91-114
The Indian Ocean is Considered One of The Most Important and Sensitive Regions of The World, And for This Reason, Maintaining Its Security Is Very Important. The Amazing Economic Growth of Southeast and East Asian Countries Such as China, India and Japan in World Trade on The One Hand and The Special Role of The Persian Gulf and Iran as An Energy Supplying Region (Oil and Gas) On the Other Hand Show the Importance of The Indian Ocean as A Strategic Region to Connect These Two the Area Has Grown to Hundreds. The Role of This Geopolitical Region in Providing Energy, The Existence of Busy Straits, The Mass Consumer Market and The Presence of Powers with High Economic Growth Have Led to The Increasing Importance of The Global Position and The Change in The Balance of Maritime Power in It. This Research Was Done with Analytical and Descriptive Method Using Library and Documentary Sources and The Results Show That the Scene of The Indian Ocean Is of Great Importance Due to Its Key Role in Maritime Trade and This Has Made the Indian Ocean the Place the World's Major Maritime Powers Are Competing and Each Has Its Own Diplomacy in This Region.
Examining the Necessary Standards of Shipping based on Customary and Statuary Maritime Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۸, Wintert ۲۰۲۳ 115-138
The correlation between the sea and the ship with scientific and technological progress and human needs in the field of trade and transportation, and the existence of inspection and observatory control in territories and their safety has caused the attention of organizations and countries to its effectiveness. On the other hand, it caused promoted productivity through the use of skilled manpower on the ship. Undoubtedly, creating universal and acceptable regulations is important so that they can be turned into law. Definitely, in this law, attention should be paid to the evaluation of the prospect of sea events and it can be predicted. Factors such as affreightment, collisions at sea, ship damage, and maritime rescue can be among these rules and clarify the purposes of a safe sea. On the other hand, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) works very actively and effectively in the direction of the compilation of these regulations and laws. It should be noted that with the progress of the shipping industry and the expansion of the sea boundaries, it is better that these laws become updated and more preventive and practical. Therefore, new standards in the maritime transport industry must be pursued by the World Maritime Organization and with a survey of the member countries, more attention should be paid to the security, speed, and services of the ports and sailing of the countries. Although one of the appreciable achievements of the World Maritime Organization has been the transformation of unsafe traditional ports into safe modern ports. But it seems that the diversity of sea transportation with regard to commodity exchanges requires the implementation of a more legal and regulatory strategy. In this article certainly, attention has been paid to the importance and fundamental role of the World Maritime Organization, because the most important basis of maritime transport is the ship. It should be noted that the ship has an independent identity and personality. On the other hand, the diversity in the utilization of ships in the aspects of commerce, public services, military, and the diversity of ship types requires special standardization and proficient implementation.
An overview of US Behavior in the Peaceful Use of the Seas from the perspective of the UN charter and Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۸, Wintert ۲۰۲۳ 1 - 5
The peaceful use of the various territories of the international community, including land, sea, air, and outer space, is one of the basic rules of international law, and the prohibition of the use and threat of force based on paragraph 4 of Article 2 of the United Nations Charter is one of the mandatory rules.None of the members of the United Nations have the right to resort to force in the seas and non-peaceful maritime activities. Although the 1982 Montego Bay, Convention on the Law of the Sea was drafted for peacetime, this does not mean that the aforementioned convention loses its validity and executive power when armed conflicts occur.In this research, using the analytical descriptive method, a review of the behavior of the United States in the peaceful use of the seas from the point of view of the United Nations Charter and the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea and the authors' analyzes has been done.The findings of this research show that the US government, according to the statements issued by this country, which have been prepared in line with the interests and oceanic policies of this sea power, has provided interpretations or perceptions regarding the maritime activities of the US in relation to the 1982 convention, which can endanger the peaceful use of the seas.The approach of the United States through the seven positions that have been examined in this brief article indicates that this country allows its military activities in order to secure its interests and is not subject to dispute resolution methods and peaceful goals. It does not consider the 1982 Convention as its legal obligation. Therefore, the US wants absolute freedom of navigation in all sea areas. Naturally, this approach of a maritime power cannot be a suitable basis for guaranteeing the peaceful use of the seas and institutionalizing maritime diplomacy.
Analysis of the International Responsibility of Governments In the use of Laser Weapons in Maritime Conflicts from the Perspective of International Humanitarian Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۸, Wintert ۲۰۲۳ 37-68
In recent years, we witnessed the use of laser weapons in naval conflicts in the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Sea of Oman. Conflicts that are not armed and under the laws of hostilities and the rights of war are not considered, and the use of laser weapons in them violates the principles of proportionality and necessity in international humanitarian law. Based on the Fourth Protocol of 1995 of the 1980 on Conventional Weapons and Article 86 of International Customary Humanitarian Law, the use of blinding and permanently blinding laser weapons is prohibited. Based on Article 36 of the 1st Additional Protocol of 1977, the governments in the production and use of new weapons should ensure that they are not prohibited from the point of view of international rules.the use of laser weapons in the aforementioned maritime conflicts is a violation of international obligations and has a criminal nature, and according to Article 2 of the 2001 international responsibility plan of governments, it causes the international responsibility of the governments that use it. The main goal of this research is to analyze the international responsibility of governments in using laser weapons in maritime conflicts in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Therefore, by using an applied research with a descriptive-analytical method to collect the data obtained through library studies and field investigation, we have sought to realize this goal. The result of the research showed that laser weapons are a violation of international obligations in the field of intimidation, unnecessary pain and suffering, use by terrorist groups, intelligent murder,violation of the right to life and the right to reproduction. humanitarian rights, human rights and mandatory rules and universal obligations are international and are considered an international violation and cause the international responsibility of governments.
Fair Arbitration in International Disputes From A Human Rights Perspective: With an Overview of Arbitration in the Maritime Environment(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۸, Wintert ۲۰۲۳ 69-90
Today, arbitration has become the most popular means of resolving maritime disputes. Arbitration as a binding dispute resolution method is proposed and recognized in the seventh appendix of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea. One of the important requirements of arbitration is the observance of fair proceedings, which according to the New York Convention of 1958 and the European Convention on Human Rights, is under judicial supervision at the stage of identifying and implementing arbitration decisions and at the stage of protesting the arbitration decision. Considering that arbitration is a type of private judgment, it is required to observe fair proceedings, as a human right, therefore, identifying the fair arbitration and guaranteeing the implementation of its non-compliance is of great importance. Identifying the principle of fair arbitration as a human right and guaranteeing its non-compliance in various cases, in order to violate the human rights of the parties, needs to be read. In the current research, with the analytical and descriptive method and using library sources and judicial procedure and according to the basics of human rights and international documents as well as international judicial procedure, the principle of fair arbitration to It has been recognized as an inalienable human right . And it can be said: the agreement on the cancellation of the right to object to the arbitration award has no effect on the possibility of requesting the annulment of the arbitration award due to non-compliance with the principles of fair arbitration. The request to cancel the arbitrator's decision that is outside the deadline can also be accepted by relying on the principles of fair arbitration, and in case of a request to implement the arbitrator's decision, the arbitrator's decision will not be able to be recognized and implemented.
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۷, Autumn ۲۰۲۲ 137 - 168
As one of the most popular means of trade in the world, shipping by sea has always been subject to maritime hazards. Thus, the implicit commitment of a ship lease contract is that the transport operator provides a seaworthy ship. There is, however, no specific definition of the legal nature of this obligation in most conventions or international laws, and it is only in this regard that the statement of seaworthiness is cited as an implied obligation. Having been written in the descriptive-analytical method, this study attempts to explain the legal nature of this obligation, its position among absolutes or relatives, primaries or subsidiaries, implicit fundamentals or customs, its compliance with the conditions of article 234, the burden of proving seaworthiness, and the lack of performance guarantees caused by its absence. According to the results of the study, a transport operator is under a relative obligation to provide a seaworthy vessel. The existence of this obligation can be mentioned both as a main condition and a secondary condition, and if there is no specification in the contract, it is referred to as a customary implied obligation. Additionally, the condition of seaworthiness would be close to the verb condition in accordance with Article 234 of the Civil Code of Iran. For a claimant (the owner of the goods) to prove a lack of seaworthiness, they only need to provide evidence that the loss has occurred. For the sea transport operator to be relieved of responsibility, s/he must prove that s/he took the necessary precautions at the start of the voyage. The owner, otherwise, is responsible for compensating the victim for the damages caused by the violation of unseaworthiness by restoring the previous situation by providing the property and if an excuse is provided, by supplying a substitute.
Investigating the Use of IRI Navy Logistics Capacities in Case of Encountering a Crisis Institutions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 111 - 137
Throughout history, Iran has always been exposed to many natural and unnatural crises due to its geographical, economic, cultural, natural, and political characteristics, and especially its location in the strategic region of the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the position and role of the logistics capacities of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy (IRI Navy henceforth) in encountering the natural disaster crisis. The entire participants included 120 senior officers of the Deputy of Readiness and Support, the heads of readiness and support of the affiliated regions and bases, and the middle managers of the headquarters and ranks of the Readiness and Support Command of Najaf among whom 92 were selected randomly based on Krejcie and Morgan’s (19700 table. Data were collected quantitatively using researcher-made disaster management questionnaires and IRI Navy preparedness capacities. Then, the validity of the questionnaire was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis and its reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. To test the hypotheses and the accuracy of the conceptual model of the research, the structural equation modeling method using the partial least squares (PLS) method was used. Findings indicated the significance of the IRI Navy's preparedness hypotheses on managing and reducing the damage caused by the natural disaster crisis. The results showed that the component of responsibility had the highest rank and importance and the components of timeliness, information, and technology, coordination, mobile systems, efficiency, and preparedness were among the next priorities of logistics capacity in case of encountering a natural disaster crisis, respectively.
Authorities and Compensation for Seabed Exploitation Beyond the Territorial Jurisdiction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 25 - 55
The seabed chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an authority for dispute settlement in seabed area cases. This chamber, in nature, is a specific judiciary for dispute resolution of this marine area in the tribunal. First, the governments must settle their disputes based on one of the peaceful resolution methods, and then should refer to the tribunal in case of agreement. Compared to the International Court of Justice in referring to dispute settlement, the most important feature of the tribunal and its chamber is the creation of a specific chamber and dispute settlement through arbitration and the presence of a special judge for dispute parties. Moreover, the seabed chamber can issue an advisory opinion, if required. Therefore, the jurisdiction of the chamber depends on two kinds of optional and compulsory jurisdictions of the tribunal, so that contractors and their guaranteeing states have joint liability for international seabed authority. It should be noted that states are responsible for an action and omission of the act causing harm in the seabed and under the seabed only in case of failure to apply their regulatory advice for contractors. The first and most important compensation for harm to the seabed is prevention from more hazards against seabed and under the seabed. Furthermore, immediate notification to coastal authorities and states, postliminium (restoration of the status formerly possessed), and complete compensation are forms of respective actions.
Perspectives on Mediation and Arbitration in the Singapore and New York Conventions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۵, Spring ۲۰۲۲ 83 - 112
With the acceptance of international trade and its expansion in the 20th century, the need to prepare a suitable mechanism to resolve disputes, especially in non-international dimensions, became one of the important concerns to maintain commercial relations and contracts. And this caused that, despite the global skepticism towards arbitration, in a short time arbitration and mediation were considered as a way to resolve conflicts, especially regarding international commercial disputes. On June 26, 2018, the Singapore Convention was approved by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) regarding international agreements resulting from mediation. And the plan of UNCITRAL was modified in the field of international commercial mediation and international settlement agreements resulting from mediation. The purpose of ratifying this convention is to establish a binding legal system and an efficient framework and legal platform for the implementation of international agreements resulting from mediation. Previously, the adoption of the New York Convention by expanding the use of the arbitration method as a way to settle disputes was considered one of the most successful international treaties in this field. In total, the present research, with an analytical and argumentative method, seeks to respond to the main philosophy of concluding and the scope of application of each of the two New York and Singapore Conventions, by examining the weak and strong points of each, it explains the position of these two treaties in resolving conflicts and disputes and discusses the similarities and differences between the New York Convention and the Singapore Convention on Mediation.
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 1 - 23
Exploiting the bed and subbed of the seas which are outside the governments’ sovereignty is always discussed since the countries severely need to these resources and the technological progress makes it possible to exploit these areas. Present study aims to respond this question that how resources of bed and subbed of the seas outside governments’ sovereignty are exploit based on law perspective, and how can analyze juridical attitude in this issue. In law perspective, according to the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Seas, these areas are the common heritage of humanity and International Seabed Authority is responsible in this field. In Islamic jurisprudence, exploitation of properties which do not belong to a specific person and freely are in access the public is named Anfal. But the bed and subbed of the seas are not included in any of the territories such as Dar al-Harb defined by the jurists, because no government have the right to claim sovereignty over these areas, and Dar al-Kofr is not in charge of these areas either. It is necessary to act based on international treaties and customary in such a situation. It means that Dar al-Islam is committed to act in accordance with existing international treaties and customary. Even if Dar al-Islam has not accepted any treaties regarding the bed and subbed of the seas, it is committed to implement international regulations based on international customary since international customary has known the bed and subbed of the seas outside the governments’ sovereignty as the common heritage of humanity.
The Policy Making of the Management of Organizational Intangible Capital and Its Impact on Knowledge Productivity in Maritime Institutions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 139 - 154
In the third millennium, the number of environmental variables and the nature of the complex relationships between them have resulted in the complexity of competition in the business. Accordingly, the role of organizational intangible capital has been more touchable than ever. Actually, as the intensity of competition increases, the importance of intangible capital enhances and the importance of physical and fixed capital decreases. Due to its geopolitical situation and the presence of extensive maritime boundaries in the north and south, Iran possesses countless strengths and opportunities to obtain maximum resources and benefits from this God-given blessing. Therefore, preservation and expansion of maritime institutions in Iran has been raised as an undeniable necessity in all short- and long-term government plans. This study aims to have policy making regarding the management of organizational intangible capital and its impact on knowledge productivity in maritime institutions of the country. Participants were the experts of Iran’s maritime organizations, which include IRI strategic Navy, the Ports and Maritime Organization, and the National Iranian Tanker Company. Standard questionnaires were employed for data collection. Results showed that focusing on intangible organizational capital in the policy making of maritime institutions can have a significant impact on knowledge productivity in them, which can lead to benefiting from national capacities in maritime studies.
Dimensions of the Contractor’s Activities in the “Area” based on Seabed Disputes Chamber’s Jurisprudence and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea’s Provisions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۱, Issue ۴, Wintert ۲۰۲۲ 1 - 14
Exploitation, Exploration and Extraction of the Area resources are subject to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. States Parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are bound by its provisions to develop the Area economic activities. All states have a duty to prevent harm to the environment including the marine environment. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has general and ambiguous rules for the support of member states for the operation of sponsored contractors in Area. States are worried that they would be liable by sponsoring contractors from their Area’s actions. Eliminating the ambiguity of this concern is issue of Advisory Opinion that has been requested from the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal Law of the Sea to interpret the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The main question is what are the obligations of the Sponsoring State in supporting the activities of the contractor in the Area based on Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal Law of the Sea’s Advisory Opinion? Research findings show that Judges interpret the main concepts outlined in Part XI and XII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, including due diligence, obligation to ensure, and obligation to achieve, argued that the Sponsoring State’s obligations to the Sponsored Contractor’s activities are obligation to ensure. The Sponsoring State advocates for the contractor to comply with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the contracting parties, use appropriate instruments and endeavor to achieve maximum results and achieve these goals. Under these conditions, the responsibility for the damage by Sponsored Contractor to the Area environment is not borne to the Sponsoring State.
Analysis of the Prompt Release of the Detained Violator Vessels Based on the Current Judicial Procedure and Domestic and International Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۷, Autumn ۲۰۲۲ 1 - 31
After dividing the sea as areas under the sovereignty and sovereign rights of the coastal states and High seas in the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea, and as a result of the possibility of detaining some foreign vessels violating the rules governing these areas, this convention also has rules regarding the prompt release of these vessels and how Its implementation has been stated in the judicial proceedings of the Coastal Government. In this regard, cases have been introduced in the International Tribunal of Law of the Sea, whose analysis can be considered as a judicial procedure and a secondary source of the law of the sea in development. In this article, in addition to the analysis and review of the judicial procedure and the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea, Iran's internal rules have also been reviewed in this regard. This research seeks to answer the question, in addition to clarifying the various aspects of immediate release, what are the criteria for prompt release, and what are appropriate and reasonable bonds? The research method is descriptive and analytical, and materials have been prepared based on library and documentary studies.
Analysis of the responsibility of the representative of a foreign company in international contracts, a case study of shipbuilding(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۵, Spring ۲۰۲۲ 113 - 127
With the increasing development of the shipbuilding industry in the global arena, the need for the presence of foreign companies in this field and especially investment in it was felt more than ever. The benefits of the presence of foreigners and the existence of sanctions against Iran gave special importance to how the contract was concluded. However, considering that the contract is considered an indefinite contract and its limits and limits are agreed upon between the parties according to the freedom of will (Article 10 of the Civil Code of Iran). In this research, we considered the conditions of the representative and the duties of its parties against the third party to be important and examined. The authors have tried to process the subject by using a descriptive-analytical research method and library data collection method. What was obtained from this research is the need to pay attention to the representative's behavior and the limits of authority granted to the representative by the principle. Considering all the aspects mentioned in this research, a relatively reliable contract can be concluded.
A New Interpretation of the Jurisdiction of the Coastal State and Its Impact on Dealing with Marine Pollution from Internal Waters to High Seas(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۷, Autumn ۲۰۲۲ 71 - 105
The increase in sea traffic with commercial ships, warships, and submarines, followed by the spread of pollution of the seas in the last century, has not only led to the threat and destruction of vital resources and marine habitats but also a source of tension and conflict between units and actors. It has provided political and can be a threat to the world community. Despite Legal requirements, pollution in the seas is increasing. The sovereignty-oriented nature of marine pollution legal requirements is one of the most important reasons for governments' reluctance to implement regulations related to marine pollution because the development of rules in this field, as well as the implementation of regulations related to marine pollution, are still within the scope of governments' satisfaction. Considering the importance of protecting the marine environment, this research deals with the scope of the coastal government's competence to deal with marine pollution using a descriptive-analytical method and with the help of library data and international documents. The findings of the research show that although the instrumental use of the concept of national sovereignty has created the basis for the pollution of the seas, Recent developments in the field of international law of the sea, such as the drafting of Article 3 of the Convention on Interference in the High Seas and paragraph one of Article 218 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea, indicate the extraterritorial expansion of the jurisdiction of coastal states to deal with marine pollution, although in a limited way.
Study the Roles of Iran Navy and Naval Alliances in the Persian Gulf and Oman sea(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 83 - 109
The formation and activity of naval alliances formed in the waters of southern Iran may lead to a critical situation in the region and an increase in military tension between the naval units of the Iranian army and the military units of the coalition forces. In response to this question, the current research, what roles can the Navy of the Islamic Republic of Iran play in confronting naval coalitions? This research is applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in nature. For this purpose, qualitative data was collected by using a questionnaire and through semi-structured interviews with 12 experts and specialists of the Navy, and then by using the method of foundational data theory, the data were coded through three stages of open coding. Axial and selective coding was analyzed and the result was 8 general categories, which in the form of a paradigm model include causal conditions (building power at sea and confidence building at sea), axial category (maritime geopolitical position of Iran), conditions Background (naval knowledge and naval ability), intervening conditions (diplomacy capacities), strategy (development of oceanic navy) and consequence (strengthening of Iran's naval power) were introduced.
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۶, Summer ۲۰۲۲ 57 - 81
The naval conflict has undergone many changes due to environmental factors and various tools, as well as the increasing growth and development of marine technologies, aligned with the inclusion of new tools and methods in naval conflict and electronic warfare at sea. The procedure taken by countries indicates the acceptance of electronic warfare as one of the methods and tools of agreed warfare. However, from the perspective of international humanitarian law, the use of electronic warfare tools and methods is challenging, and international treaty law lacks a legal rule regarding this method of warfare. Indeed, the only guideline that has sought to regulate electronic warfare is the Air and Missile Warfare Directive, which imposes no legal requirements on governments. So the question we are going to answer in this brief is that, can humanitarian law be applied to electronic warfare? The purpose of this study is to explain and investigate the various dimensions of naval electronic warfare from the perspective of international humanitarian law, and proving that international humanitarian law can be applied to the methods and tools of electronic warfare at sea. The research method selected for the present paper is an analytical-explanatory method and the data collection method used is the library research method.
A Socioeconomic Analysis of Piracy in the Northern Indian Ocean and its Solutions under International Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۱, Issue ۴, Wintert ۲۰۲۲ 85 - 103
Maritime transport has become significant as the backbone of global trade and, consequently, globalization, which is the basis of the globalizing project of the economy, which, with an attitude of dependence on the development of countries and the international maritime trade, lends more importance to maritime trade. Securing maritime trade, with the emergence of recent insecurity as the most important concern for the countries that benefit from this, is one of the most important options for world trade due to its high transport capability, low cost and ease of transportation. As a result of the vast dependence of countries on maritime trade, there are various problems, such as piracy and environmental pollution, which, in turn, has become a global downfall. Modern piracy has new patterns. Although the nature of the crime is the very essence of this activity, the context for replacing these changes is to be considered. Piracy and robbery not only can stop the logistics chain from leading to economic consequences, but also it will lead to the loss of life, short-term and long-term health problems for seafarers and travelers; the consequences that require more analysis. In this article, we have tried to investigate the history of piracy and analyze the pathology of this global problem and provide solutions for the issue.
Explaining the Executive Integration Method of Localized Organizational Application Systems for Using in Government Organizations (Applied in the Management of Marine Industries)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Maritime Policy, Volume ۲, Issue ۷, Autumn ۲۰۲۲ 169 - 197
Integrating application systems based in organizations creates coordination and interaction between people and organizational units and hardware, software, and database infrastructures. This optimal solution integration results in achieving process maturity and creating suitable conditions for making strategic decisions at management levels to improve organizational performance. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a native executive method for integrating organizational application systems at the management level following the characteristics of Iranian government organizations and their execution in a marine organization platform as a case study. V method was used as a methodology in the execution algorithm for integrating organizational application systems. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved through a case study and its execution in the real world in the framework of a government organization. The executive method explained for the integration of application systems in the field of defense management was implemented as a case study. This method became native to the marine industry and is suitable for use at the management levels of marine organizations. The advantages and achievements of using this executive method in a case study are 1) Improving the flow of data and information, 2) Increasing the ability to interpret data and information, 3) Reducing the costs of implementing, using, developing, and maintaining databases and organizational application systems, 4) Increasing flexibility and productivity of business processes, and 5) Integration and automation of processes is desirable.