Exploitation, Exploration and Extraction of the Area resources are subject to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. States Parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are bound by its provisions to develop the Area economic activities. All states have a duty to prevent harm to the environment including the marine environment. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has general and ambiguous rules for the support of member states for the operation of sponsored contractors in Area. States are worried that they would be liable by sponsoring contractors from their Area’s actions. Eliminating the ambiguity of this concern is issue of Advisory Opinion that has been requested from the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal Law of the Sea to interpret the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The main question is what are the obligations of the Sponsoring State in supporting the activities of the contractor in the Area based on Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal Law of the Sea’s Advisory Opinion? Research findings show that Judges interpret the main concepts outlined in Part XI and XII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, including due diligence, obligation to ensure, and obligation to achieve, argued that the Sponsoring State’s obligations to the Sponsored Contractor’s activities are obligation to ensure. The Sponsoring State advocates for the contractor to comply with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the contracting parties, use appropriate instruments and endeavor to achieve maximum results and achieve these goals. Under these conditions, the responsibility for the damage by Sponsored Contractor to the Area environment is not borne to the Sponsoring State.
The Legitimacy of Using Naval Mines Technology during Peacetime in the Light of Developments in International Law of the Seas(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Naval mining technology is one of the tools that have a dual function. And an effective tool in times of peace and crisis as well as during the war that the eighth convention of The Hague in 1907 has regulated the use of contact mines during the armed naval conﬂict. Nevertheless, pouring sea mines during peace time is a legal choice for governments in the waters and their territorial sea, and even in their international territories. But, dumping at sea in times of peace and in crisis situations is a danger, and in fact, in each of the maritime territories, it is in contrast to freedom and the right to transit, as well as peaceful freedom of movement, which is extremism and the issue in this regard could be a threat to international peace and security. Nevertheless, new mine technologies can somewhat prevent the risks and the obligations of governments, depending on the type of mine, also vary. Therefore, this paper discusses the legitimacy of the use of sea mine technology in peacetime in the light of developments in the international law of the seas and the opinions of the International Court of Justice. And proves the relationship of this kind of technology to ensure the security of the coastal state and pre-crisis will be timely and valuable; this type of strategy and technology within the framework of legal constraints, international law is justiﬁable. Research method of this paper is analytical-compilation method and data collection method is library-documentary method.
The Voyage Charter Party Considerations According to International Maritime Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The attempts will be made to compare and analyze the provisions and clauses of the different charter parties, demonstrate and disclose some of the disputable problems in the standpoint of views of the parties connected to the charter party, which have been existed and encountered during the performance and operation of the contract of affreightment, inter alia, the voyage charter party forms, the incorporated provisions and rider clauses. In this part of the research topic, the utmost attempt has been made to go to the root of the encountered difficulties and disputes. There has been thought of a need for reconsideration and reconciliation of the interpretation of the clauses which appeared to be assumed to lack of global uniformity. The parties to the charter party are the ship-owner and the charterer to whom, inter alia, the obligations, rights, liabilities, and risks are allocated, whereas, the review of the important aspects of the voyage charter party will be considered in due course in details. This piece of work is going to be based on shipping practices and experience of my own sea service and handling of maritime arbitration cases and consultancy for the disputed and claimed cases.
A Socioeconomic Analysis of Piracy in the Northern Indian Ocean and its Solutions under International Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Maritime transport has become significant as the backbone of global trade and, consequently, globalization, which is the basis of the globalizing project of the economy, which, with an attitude of dependence on the development of countries and the international maritime trade, lends more importance to maritime trade. Securing maritime trade, with the emergence of recent insecurity as the most important concern for the countries that benefit from this, is one of the most important options for world trade due to its high transport capability, low cost and ease of transportation. As a result of the vast dependence of countries on maritime trade, there are various problems, such as piracy and environmental pollution, which, in turn, has become a global downfall. Modern piracy has new patterns. Although the nature of the crime is the very essence of this activity, the context for replacing these changes is to be considered. Piracy and robbery not only can stop the logistics chain from leading to economic consequences, but also it will lead to the loss of life, short-term and long-term health problems for seafarers and travelers; the consequences that require more analysis. In this article, we have tried to investigate the history of piracy and analyze the pathology of this global problem and provide solutions for the issue.
Checking the Status of the Caspian Coast Tourism Based on SWOT: An Overview of the Development of Maritime Sport Tourism in Mazandaran as Maritime Province(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The northern shores of Iran, especially the shores of Mazandaran province, have long been a popular destination for tourists. Sea and coastal tourism is one of the most popular forms of tourism in today's world.This research tries to study and analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the strategy on coastal tourism. This research method is descriptive-analytical and is formed like a field method. Given the importance of the maritime tourism industry, careful study and analysis of the factors affecting the development of this industry importance. Influential factors and components such as security, marketing and technology have been analyzed on the development and prosperity of tourism at sea, as well as short-term, medium-term and long-term operational plans for the development of maritime tourism. Security was considered to be the most important and fundamental principle in the development of tourism development strategy in the world Statistical Society due to the Morgan table so that assuming the maximum population of Statistical (384) people as a sample were chosen. The results show that the Coastal tourism of Mazandaran province In terms of strategic location and the internal and external matrix is located in the Conservative area؛ in other words it can take advantage of opportunities in the external environment in coastal tourism by emphasizing on sports activities that can show the weaknesses of internal problems better. That means that in the outside there are very good opportunities to promote coastal tourism with an emphasis on sports activities. However, because of weaknesses in the domestic environment (organization), these opportunities cannot be exploited.
Disarmament, Weapons Control and Defense Diplomacy in the Views and Thoughts of Imam Khomeini(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Ensuring defense and security in the international system of disarmament and arms control is one of the most vital areas at the heart of international policy. Defense and security are so closely intertwined that not only do countries seek to increase their defense and security capabilities in order to ensure their security, but also through which they confront potential and actual threats. Defense and security are very important and basic areas that can create deterrence in the light of which security prevails and the harmful consequences of its absence are prevented. The leaders of any society can play an important role in various matters, especially the country's defense-security strategy. Therefore, since most of the military, defense and security affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran originate from the ideas of the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini; The need for research and study of their ideas in the field of defense and national security is evident. In this article, as necessary, Imam Khomeini's defense-military views and ideas will be discussed, specifically in the field of disarmament and arms control. The main purpose is to answer the basic question: "What was the goal and meaning of Imam Khomeini's approach to disarmament and arms control?" The temporary answer is that Imam Khomeini was thinking about weapons of mass destruction, Disarmamently, and Controling the conventional weapons of arms.