عبدالله سارانی

عبدالله سارانی

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۱۹ مورد از کل ۱۹ مورد.
۱.

The Effect of Regulatory Focus Orientations on Iranian EFL learners’ Speaking Fluency and Willingness to Communicate(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iranian EFL learners regulatory focus orientations speaking fluency willingness to communicate promotion-focused prevention-focused

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵
The Regulatory Focus Theory, a classic self-regulatory approach, posits that human behavior is significantly influenced by salient standards and reference points that are either situation-dependent or chronically accessible in a person's mind. This study examined the impact of regulatory focus orientations, namely prevention and promotion, on the willingness of Iranian EFL learners to communicate in an English class. We selected 48 upper-intermediate-level students via the Oxford Placement test. These students were divided into three groups: promotion-focused, prevention-focused, and control. The promotion-focused group was encouraged through positive reinforcement of their success and accomplishments when using correct linguistic features during class. Conversely, the prevention-focused group was immediately corrected when a linguistic error occurred to avoid further mistakes, and no praise was given for correct language use. The control group received no intervention. Results derived from a one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant relationship between the regulatory focus orientation and students' willingness to communicate. EFL learners exposed to promotion techniques demonstrated a higher willingness to communicate. The paper concludes with a discussion on the theoretical implications and pedagogical applications of the study.
۲.

A Symbiosis of Contingent Models to Scaffold EFL Learners towards Self-regulation and Willingness to Communicate(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Scaffolding Contingency the MCT the CSF intervention strategies

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۳
Scaffolding entails contingency, denoting teachers’ level adaptation in providing transient support. In this study, a symbiosis of the model of contingent teaching (MCT) and the contingent shift framework (CSF) was utilized. Therefore, 360 elementary and advanced EFL learners took a course and filled out two sets of related questionnaires twice, administered at the outset and the end of the course. The transcribed data including the class interactions and intervention strategies were organized into contingent or non-contingent fragments based on models’ criteria. According to the results of the Wilcoxon rank test and the Paired Sample t-test, there was a significant difference between the results of the pre and post-tests in the two mentioned levels for the two constructs. Furthermore, the results of the Single Sample t-test showed that the CSF was more utilized than the MCT in both levels. Moreover, the intervention strategies of the MCT significantly differed in the two levels. Questioning was a highly used strategy at both levels. Hints and modeling were the least utilized strategies in elementary and advanced levels, respectively. Therefore, such contingent symbiosis could have prolific results in self-regulation and gaining willingness to communicate
۳.

Assessment and Analysis of Writing Activities of Secondary High School English Textbooks: Vision Series(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: writing skill English books of vision 1 2 3 communicative approach Assessment

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۲ تعداد دانلود : ۹۲
Writing is one of the four skills of language learning, especially, one of the skills of practical communication in a communicative approach. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and analyze writing activities of the writing sections of secondary high school English textbooks, grades 10th, 11th and 12th, so-called vision 1, 2, 3. The theoretical framework of this research, a descriptive-analytical and qualitative method, was based on Kern's (2007) and Harmer’s (2004) model and continuum of writing activities. The writing activities of these vision books were divided into three major categories of controlled, guided and free writing and fifteen more sub-categories. The exercises and activities of the writing section of these six-volume English textbooks, so-called vision 1,2,3 were counted on and the average and percentage of each category were calculated based on Kern’s (2002) and Harmer’s (2004) model and continuum of writing. The findings of this research indicate that the categories of controlled writing and copying, the first item of Kern’s continuum, are the dominant writing tasks in these books. Activities concerning the guided, and especially the free writing activities in these books are rarely seen or they have not been much carefully regarded. In the communicative approach, regarding the goods and the existing requirements, the teaching of writing is generally concerned with free writing tasks. Therefore, to enhance and promote practical communication skills as an aim of a communicative approach, free writing skills are inevitable. The findings of this research point out that English teachers can reinforce and enhance their students’ practical communication abilities in their classes by using freestyle exercises and hence, cover the shortcomings of the books.
۵.

تبیین و بررسی تأثیر انگاره بومیِ ارزشیابی پویا در شناخت و رفع مشکلات یادگیری مهارت های زبانیِ مولد در دانش آموزان متوسطه(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: آزمون سازی ارزشیابی پویا انگاره بومی منطقه مجاور رشد مهارتهای مولد

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۹
ارزشیابی پویا، رویکردی نوین در آزمون سازی است که ریشه در مبانی نظری فراوانی دارد و به همین دلیل، در سالهای اخیر مورد توجه محققان قرار گرفته است. اما اغلب این تحقیقات در محیط ای آزمایشگاهی بوده و قابلیت این رویکرد را در یک دروه تحصیلی واقعی بررسی نکرده اند. در تحقیق حاضر با بهره گیری از نظریه های گوناگون آموزش و ارزشیابی، انگاره ای بومی از ارزشیابی پویا برای شناخت مشکلات یادگیری تبیین و سپس نتایج حاصل با رویکردی معیار (الجفره و لنتلف،1994) مقایسه شده است. برای این منظور از 102 نفر از دانش آموزان پسر اول متوسطه در دو گروه آزمایشی و یک گروه کنترل استفاده و عملکرد آنها در یک پس آزمون مقایسه شد. نتایج نشان داد که به واسطه این انگاره بومی می توان مشکلات دانش آموزان در مهارت های مولد را بازشناخت و برای رفع آنها فهرستی بومی از الگوهای مداخله ای ارائه کرد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل واریانس نیز نشان داد که این فهرست مداخله ای بومی بر انگاره معیار مذکور برتری نسبی دارد و به صورت معناداری باعث رشد یادگیری مهارت های گفتاری و نوشتاری زبان آموزان می شود.
۶.

The Effect of Dogme Language Teaching (Dogme ELT) on L2 Speaking and Willingness to Communicate (WTC)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Dogme ELT CLT L2 speaking language proficiency willingness to communicate (WTC)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۹۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۵
Dogme Language Teaching (Dogme ELT) is an innovative learner-centered methodology and a movement for teaching English (or any other L2) that primarily focuses on face-to-face interaction between teacher and learners and among the learners themselves (Thornbury, 2009) without using any preplanned and established instructional materials, syllabuses, or preset activities. Despite many claims by the proponents, research evidence for Dogme ELT is very limited; accordingly, this sequential explanatory mixed-method study sought to examine the effect of Dogme ELT on L2 speaking andwillingness to communicate (WTC)across different proficiency levels among Iranian EFL learners at a private language institute. Participants included 14 intermediate, 12 upper-intermediate, and 12 advanced level learners from both genders in three intact classes as the experimental groups. Three other intact classes comprising 13 intermediate, 13 upper-intermediate, and 11 advanced level learners, respectively were selected as control groups who received the mainstream communicative language teaching (CLT) for their L2 instruction. The treatments continued for two subsequent semesters including thirty 1.5-hour sessions. Quantitative data analysis using two-way ANCOVA revealed that Dogme ELT was more effective than CLT only for the advanced but not for the intermediate and upper-intermediate learners’ speaking and WTC. Qualitative data analysis revealed that most advanced and only some upper-intermediate learners had positive attitudes about Dogme ELT. The findings of the current investigation suggest that Dogme ELT should be used for advanced EFL levels and its application should be done with more caution.
۷.

ارائه الگویی از مداخله تکوینی - تعاملی پویا برای تغییر پذیری شناختی و بهبود یادگیری دانش آموزان مضطرب: ترکیب تدریس و روان درمانی در کلاس زبان انگلیسی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: آموزش زبان اضطراب یادگیری روانشناسی آموزشی مداخله پویا منطقه مجاور رشد

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۸
اضطراب یادگیری یک حالت روانشناختی است که تاثیر بسزایی در عملکرد آموزشی فراگیران دارد. نداشتن نشانه بارز فیزیکی و نبود راهکار صریح آموزشی باعث شده است تا رویکرد شاخصی برای شناخت و رفع علائم اضطراب در حین آموزش، وجود نداشته باشد. مطالعه حاضر با ترکیب مداخله پویای تعاملی و مفهوم منطقه مجاور رشد با ارزشیابی تکوینی، یک الگوی کاربردی برای شناخت و رفع علائم اضطراب ارائه داده است. سپس در گام دوم ، با استفاده از یک طرح تحقیقاتی شبه-آزمایشی، کارایی این الگو بر روی 6 دانش آموز مضطرب سنجیده شد و نتایج حاصل از آن توسط آنووای اندازه های تکرار شده سنجیده شد. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که مدل ارائه شده باعث کاهش معنادار نمره اضطراب کلاسی شرکت کنندگان در مرحله پس آزمون شد و این کاهش در مرحله پیگیری نیز ثابت ماند. این روش یک الگوی بهینه است که در ضمن تدریس، باعث رفع نشانه های اضطراب می شود و تخصیص هزینه، وقت اضافی و پیگیری های بالینی برای درمان اضطراب را کاهش می دهد. این تحقیق برای معلمان آموزش زبان انگلیسی، مشاوران تحصیلی، روانشناسان آموزشی ومحققان در حوزه روانشناسی تربیتی کاربرد دارد.
۸.

Exploring EFL Learners’ Use of Formulaic Sequences in Pragmatically Focused Role-play Tasks(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Formulaic Expressions Language Formula Pragmatic Routines Teaching English as a foreign language

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۵
Communicative language use largely entails regular patterns consisting of pre-constructed phrases or sequences. These sequences have been examined by many researchers to find the situation-based formulas which may help L2 learners follow a possibly more target-like speaking system. This study, therefore, explored two categories of formulaic expressions including speech formulas and situation-bound utterances used by EFL learners. The randomly selective participants included 30 intermediate and 30 advanced learners, who performed a total number of 120 role-play tasks focused on the situations which required the use of thanking, requesting, offering, and apology speech acts. Audio-recorded data from role-plays were transcribed and analyzed based on existing lists of speech formulas. Results showed that the participants produced more than 102 types of formulaic sequences that could be called “a list of pragmatic routines for thanking, requesting, offering, and apologizing speech acts in the EFL context”.  This list includes 44 and 58 speech formulas and situation-bound utterances, respectively. Results further indicated that advanced language learners used more diverse situation-bound utterances in terms of its internal and contextual complexity than their counterparts in the intermediate group due to expert judgments. Because these formulas can increase coherence in speaking, and enhance effective and natural communication, their instruction could be part of the language teaching curriculum.
۹.

The Effect of Bilingualism/ Monolinguals on L2 Working Memory Capacity and Verbal Intelligence(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: bilingualism monolinguals WMC Verbal intelligence

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱۱
Issues related to bilingualism and the effects which might have on language learners’ cognitive and meta-cognitive variables have attracted the attention of a couple of researchers in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA).Since a couple of decades ago, there has been a plethora of studies on cognitive and metacognitive differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. However, the impact of bilingualism on EFL learners’ WMC and verbal intelligence has not be explored yet. The present study aimed at comparing the WMC and verbal intelligence of bilingual and monolingual language learners. In so doing, 30 Baluch EFL learners and 30 Persian speaker EFL learners were selected through convenience sampling. The data of the study were collected through running WMC measure and verbal intelligence test. The data of the study were analyzed through running descriptive and inferential statistics tests (independent samples-t-tests). Results showed that bilingual language learners outperformed the monolingual language learners in both WMC measures and verbal intelligence test. Therefore, it could be concluded that bilingualism affects EFL learners’ WMC and verbal intelligence. The findings have theoretical implications for applied linguists and psycholinguists and practical implications for teachers and syllabus designers.    
۱۰.

Explicit Instruction of Pragmatic Features: Its Impact on EFL Learners’ Knowledge of Hedging Devices in Academic Writing(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: hedging modal auxiliaries Explicit Instruction pragmatic features EFL context

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۹
Hedging academic claims has been recognized as one of integral pragmatic features of academic writing in which most EFL academic writers seem to face substantial problems. Explicit instruction has been proposed by some scholars as an effective approach to make EFL writers aware of the importance, different forms, and pragmatic functions of hedging devices some of which are polysemous and polypragmatics (e.g., Hyland 1996a). The present study with the aim of shedding more light on the effectiveness of explicit instruction in improving the pragmatic knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in terms of hedging devices, investigates the acquisition and use of English modal auxiliaries as hedging strategies via applying a direct teaching strategy in the classroom. To this end a sample of 37 undergraduate students majoring in different fields of study were recruited and assigned into a control and experimental group. Explicit instruction of the modal auxiliaries as hedging resources was applied for the treatment group while the control group received only the regular academic writing instruction. A pretest and a posttest were administered to the two groups. The descriptive analysis of the scores as well as the results of the t-tests revealed a significant progress in the participants’ linguistic and pragmatic knowledge of modal auxiliaries as hedges in the treatment group. The results also indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring and using modal verbs to hedge their claims. The findings of the study provide insightful implications for the administrators of educational programs.
۱۱.

The Effect of Genre Awareness on English Translation Quality and Pedagogy: A Case of News Reports Translation as an Academic Curriculum(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Baker’s Taxonomy ESP Genre Awareness House’s Model Rhetorical Conventions

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸۶
To produce an adequate translation, language students are required to learn varieties of language features including syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Considering the curriculum language learners are face with, one can claim that almost all language students in Iran are taught these features in their academic settings including linguistic courses. Yet, there are some aspects of language which are disregarded in course books and syllabi and ignored by language teachers. Thus, language learners find it a formidable task to deal with these shrugged off aspects of their curricula. Genre of language is among these invisible features which have challenged translation students in translating specific texts. News reports is one of these genres that Iranian media translators, in spite of enjoying technical competence in language, are not familiar with knowledge and rhetorical conventions of it. So, the current is conducted to investigate the familiarity of these translators with genre features of news discourse and examine the effect of raising genre awareness on developing the quality of translation. To this aim, fourteen translation students studying translation for media purpose were selected through convenient sampling who were given some news reports to translate. Using Baker’s taxonomy (1992) and House’s quality assessment model (1997), the quality of their translations were assessed before genre awareness raising session and after it. The findings showed that the quality of translation ameliorated meaningfully after the instruction, indicating the importance of genre knowledge in linguistic competence. These findings have implications for syllabus designers and EAP and ESP teachers and students. 
۱۲.

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: آسیب شناسی پیشرفت واژگانی ادراکی در زبان دوم: مطالعه موردی میکروژنتیک (Diagnosing L2 Receptive Vocabulary Development Using Dynamic Assessment: A Microgenetic Study)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: تدریس واژگان انتقال ارزشیابی پویا منطقه پیشرفت نسبی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴۲
مطالعه حاضر به بررسی ارزشیابی پویا در آسیب شناسی و بهبود توانایی ادراکی واژگان زبان آموزان سطح پیشرفته می پردازد. تعداد 50 نفر از زبان آموزانی که دارای اولین مدرک سطح متوسط دانشگاه کمبریج (FCE) بودند در آزمون سطح بندی دانش واژگان شرکت کردند. از میان این 50 نفر، 10 زبان آموز که دارای شرایط مشابه زبانی بودند و با واژگان جدید آشنایی نداشتند به صورت داوطلبانه در کلاس های انفرادی و خصوصی شرکت کردند. به منظور آشنایی زبان آموزان با واژگان جدید، متون خواندنی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و برای ارزیابی واژگان ادراکی آنها متن پاسخ بسته به کار گرفته شد. تدریس بر مبنای رویکرد کنش متقابل در ارزیابی پویا انجام شد، و میزان پاسخگویی فراگیران بر اساس رویکرد میکروژنتیک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که برای دستیابی به تصویر کلی از توانایی های فراگیران صرفا نمره های کسب شده توسط آنها کافی نیستند. نمره های داده شده در ارزیابی حین تدریس برای عملکردهای تشخیصی و شناسایی حیطه های دشوار و بهبود دانش واژگان ادراکی زبان آموزان نقش بسزایی دارد. همچنین بررسی نمرات نشان داد که یادگیری همراه با نمره گذاری (LPS) می تواند واکنش احتمالی فراگیران نسبت به آموزش آینده را نیز پیش بینی کند. نتایج نشان می دهد که ارزیابی پویا نه تنها در ارائه شناخت دقیق پیشرفت واژگان ادراکی فراگیران موثر است بلکه می تواند اطلاعاتی را نیز در مورد آموزش و یادگیری آتی ارائه کند.
۱۳.

Nominalization in the Writing of Novice vs. Experienced Members of Academic Communities: A Comparative Discourse Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Research Articles Nominalization academic writing novice writers established writers

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تعداد بازدید : ۷۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶۲
The language register used in academic communities has the special features of density, complexity, and abstractness which are associated with nominalization with which new members of the communities might not be familiar. To explore the possible distance between novice and established members regarding their awareness of this grammatical feature, the present study investigated the employment of nominalization in the writings of Iranian graduate students (both MA and PhD students) and experienced figures in applied linguistics. Forty five research articles in the discipline by the three groups of writers served as the corpus of the study. A rigorous analysis began by identifying and outlining nominalization instances manually through and per all rhetorical sections of the articles. The occurrences of the two types of nominal expressions was counted and normalized. So as to detect the possible significant differences between the samples, chi-square tests were run. The results revealed that the experienced writers used significantly more nominalization in their writings. However, although the total nominal expressions used in MA texts were more than those used in PhD texts, the difference turned out not to be significant. There were also similarities and variations in the ranking patterns of the two types of nominalization in four rhetorical sections of the three groups of the articles. It can be concluded that the differences might reflect the distance between the novice and the established authors regarding their awareness of the importance of nominalization in academic writing. The implications of the study for EAP courses were also discussed.
۱۴.

Unpeeling the Onion: On the Relationship among Iranian EFL Teachers’ Home-culture Attachment and Its Underlying Components with Their Emotional Intelligence(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: culture EFL Teachers Emotional Intelligence Home-Culture Attachment

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تعداد بازدید : ۵۲۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰۵
An understanding of language as ‘open, dynamic, constantly evolving and personal encompasses the rich complexities of communication (Shohamy, 2007, p.5). Knowing about the important role of culture as well as psychological aspects of language can give us a broader view of languageteaching and learning. In order to obtain a better understanding of different aspects of language teaching, the present study aims to investigate the possible relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’home-culture attachment and its underlying components, with their emotional intelligence. To this aim two questionnaires namely: Home culture Attachment/dependency and Bar-On EI test were distributed among 80 EFL teachers, both men and women who taught at different levels in state schools in Birjand, Kermanshah and Zabol. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Finally results of the study revealed no significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ home culture attachment and its underlying components, with their emotional intelligence. The most important result of this study is bringing about awareness for EFL teachers, EFL syllabus designers, teacher educators and policy makers about the important factors in cultural attachment or detachment of Iranian EFL teachers that consequently affects their teaching and transfer of cultural values into their students.
۱۵.

Formulation of Language Teachers̕ Identity in the Situated Learning of Language Teaching Community of Practice(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Language Teachers’ Identity Situated Learning Teacher Education Program Language Teaching Community of Practice

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۸۷ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰۶
A community of practice may shape and reshape the identity of members of the community through providing them with situated learning or learning environment. This study, therefore, is to clarify the salient learning-based features of the language teaching community of practice that might formulate the identity of language teachers. To this end, the study examined how learning situations in two communities of practice (English and Arabic) developed the professional identity of language teachers. The results of the semi-structure interviews with 5 language teachers highlighted some differences between English and Arabic language teaching communities of practice in terms of the situated learning activities they provide for language teachers to develop their professional identity. Furthermore, since the community of practice can be considered a potential curriculum that may be learned by newcomers with legitimate peripheral access, it would be considered as a main source of identity formation of both English and Arabic language teachers. The findings of the study can be used to better understand the nature of being a professional language teacher in non-native contexts. They have implications for novice and experienced language teachers as well as for teacher educators to review the content of the teacher training courses
۱۶.

Refusal Speech Act Realization in Sarawani Balochi Dialect: A Case Study of Male University Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Gender Refusal Power Type Number

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳۰
Following Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Weltz’s (1990) classification, this study examines the relationship between power and gender of the addressees and the type and number of refusal strategies employed by Sarawani Baloch male university students (SBMUS). Fifty SBMUS studying in Azad University of Sarawan were randomly chosen as the participants of the study. Data collection was accomplished through applying a revised version of DCT (Discourse Completion Test). The data collected were then coded and analyzed according to Beebe et al.'s (ibid.) taxonomy, and Chi-square and Correlation test results. The results show that refusal strategies extracted, are, for the most part, similar to those given in Beebe et al.’s work, which, in turn, confirms the universality of applying refusal strategies. However, SBMUS also employ some new strategies not predicted in the given scheme, suggesting the effect of their religion and culture. Research findings also denote the ineffectiveness of power and gender of the addressees on the type of refusal strategies employed by SBMUS. Moreover, results indicate that although power of the addressees affects number of refusal strategies used by the participants, their gender does not affect this variable. “Excuse, reason, explanation” dealing with all the addressees, the combination of 3 refusal strategies in reply to those in higher social power, and the combination of 2 strategies in response to those with equal and lower power are the most frequent refusal strategies regarding the type and number of refusal strategies.
۱۷.

Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Extroverted and Introverted Iranian EFL Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Introversion Extroversion Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) EFL Learners Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۵۹
The present study is a research which explores the relationship between introversion/extroversion and the use of vocabulary learning strategies. The participants were 80 male and female EFL students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan who had studied EFL at the university for at least two years and were randomly selected. The participants were selected after excluding those who got L scores of above 4 or 5 from the EPI personality inventory. They were then divided into two groups of introverts and extroverts based on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The independent sample t-test was run to examine if there is a significant relationship between the students’ personality type (intro/extra) and their use of vocabulary learning strategies. It was found that there is no difference between introverts and extroverts in the overall use of vocabulary learning strategies as well as in the use of cognitive, memory, and social strategies. However, a significant difference was found between these two groups in the use of determination strategies. It was also found that of the four categories, determination strategies were the most frequently used category by all the participants. The results also revealed that extroverts used vocabulary learning strategies more frequently than their introverted counterparts.
۱۸.

On the Relationship between General Factor and Foreign Language Proficiency(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WSIC_R) Raven Progressive Matrices (RPMs) Verbal IQ Non-Verbal IQ g Factor General Intelligence

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تعداد بازدید : ۹۳۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۹۹
Raven Progressive Matrices (RPMs) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WSIC-R) are two common general intelligence measuring scales used in Iranian high schools. In this paper the relationships between g factor scales and students’ reading comprehension, grammar, and vocabulary was examined by correlation and regression analysis. Standard tests of grammar and vocabulary and Cambridge Key English Test (KET) were used to elicit the overall language proficiency of Iranian high school students. The results of the study revealed that verbal intelligence and vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence measured by RPMs not WSIC-R were determining factors in reading comprehension. Verbal intelligence was found to have an important role in vocabulary knowledge. Only grammar, in spite of a weak correlation with reading and a section of WSIC-R, didn’t show any remarkable correlation with intelligence or language knowledge measuring scales.
۱۹.

Use of Articles in Learning English as a Foreign Language: A Study of Iranian English Undergraduates(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Error Analysis English Articles Definite Indefinite

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The significance of error analysis for the learner، the teacher and the researcher is now widely recognized. Earlier studies of error analysis concentrated on intersystematic comparison of the “native language” and the “target language” and drew the required data largely from intuitions and impressionistic observations. This study was conducted on the basis of the following observations: (1) to restrict to the study of one area viz articles. (2) to avoid comparison in terms of the systems of native and target language. In this study the major areas of difficulties that students face in the target language، i.e. the occurrence of articles in different syntactic features was examined and an attempt was made to establish a hierarchy of difficulties 40 undergraduates faced in the use of articles. For testing the correct retrieval، a slightly modified version of Leacok’s essay ‘My Financial Career’ was prepared. It included sufficient examples of almost all the important uses of articles. The test was given to the subjects in the form of a running text. The responses of the subjects were analysed in terms of noun or noun phrases preceded by articles، noun or noun-phrases preceded by no article، and grammatical categories other than noun or noun-phrases proceeded by no article. The findings revealed that most of the errors the students committed were due to the nature as well as the grammatical complexity of the articles in English، i.e. L1 independent which cannot be explained in terms of transfer from the native language. It was also found that students’ competence using anaphoric reference is far greater than using cataphoric reference. The findings are interpreted to have pedagogical implications for syllabus designers and EFL teachers.

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