The Tafsīr book attributed to Imām Hassan ibn ʿAlī ʿAskarī (AS) or Tafsīr of Abū Muḥammad Uṭrūsh is one of the Tafsīr al-Ma’thūr (traditional interpretation) of early Shi’a, which has long been the subject of controversy and discussion among Imāmī Shiite thinkers, especially the later scholars; and even some consider it as fabricated which has been attributed to Imāmayn ʿAskarīyayn (AS). Controversies about this book are multidimensional; that is, it includes both the date of authorship and attribution of the book to the author, and also includes the Isnād, narrators, and content of the book. Therefore, it is necessary to examine this interpretation from various aspects; one of these dimensions is the rijālī review of the narrators of this work to find out how is its chains of transmitters? Is there any vacancy and anxiety in these chains of narrators? And also, what is the rijālī status of these narrators? Since the review of the narrators of Isnād up to Sheikh Sadūq has been discussed in other articles, in this article, only the rijālī review of ten of the narrators of this Isnād is discussed from Sheikh Sadūq to ʿAskarī Uṭrūsh. In this rijālī review of the narrators, it was found that the majority of the narrators of this part of the Tafsīr Isnād are unknown in the Imāmī sources, and the rest have not been confirmed.
What is the Futurological Understanding of the Revelatory Text? A Look at Presuppositions about the Concept of the Future(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In the field of futurology research in the revelatory texts, various research works have been done in academic centers. What has been paid less attention in these researches is dealing with the presuppositions that should be taken into consideration. The futurological understanding of the revelatory text, as its name suggests, is based on the three pillars of the quiddity of understanding, the quiddity of future, and the quiddity of the revelatory text. In other words, depending on what understanding and perception we have of the phenomenon of understanding itself, what perception and imagination we have of the future, and how we consider the revelatory text as a text and what we should expect from it, makes our futurological understanding different. In this regard, in the first part of the article, an attempt is made to address the point that the researches that have been carried out in the futurological field are based on what perception and expectation of the Holy Qur'an and how this perception and expectation can be used in futurological studies. In the next section, we are focused on the concept of the future and how the understanding of the future that emerges in different paradigms affects the futurological understanding of the revelatory text. In the next section, we are focused on the concept of the future and how the understanding of the future that emerges in different paradigms affects the futurist's understanding of the revelatory text. This study shows that the concept of the future has been moving from something objective, rigid and external to something subjective and rooted in people's beliefs today.
From a long time until now, one of the methods of fighting against the Holy Quran has been to spread doubts against this divine book, and in this regard, the opponents have not spared any effort. Among these doubts, the superstition of the scientific data of the Holy Quran, which has been repeatedly raised by the opponents. According to them, the root of the scientific propositions of the Quran should be sought in the superstitious and false beliefs of the past, which the Prophet (PBUH) borrowed from the past and the scientific-cultural environment of his age. In this context, recently a book entitled "Criticism of the Qur'an" written by a person named Saha was published, and in order to achieve this goal, the author has put forward the claim that some scientific material in the Holy Qur'an is derived from some superstition in order to achieve this goal. And it is old wrong. He has made great efforts to connect the scientific statements of the Quran with the scientific opinions of the ancient world and old superstitions in every possible way. The current research, which was carried out by a descriptive-analytical method with a critical orientation and based on library sources, aims to investigate this claim and criticize it, and tries to establish the relationship between the scientific propositions of the Qur'an by conducting a comprehensive research on a number of these doubts. and explain the scientific opinions of the ancient world.
The most holy nature of God is described in the Holy Qur'an with many attributes of glory and beauty, all of which indicate the exaltation of God's dignity and His purity from the attributes of imperfection and deficiency. Some of these attributes are also found in the text of the today text of Torah. Believing in the heavenly nature of the Jewish religion, there should not be any difference regarding the mention of divine names and attributes in these religions. This research, which is aimed at the comparative study of the attribute of divine knowledge in the Holy Qur’an and Torah (Old Testament) and the descriptive-analytical method based on library and documentary information, tries to explain the common and different theological points of Islam and Judaism to present the attributes that refer to divine knowledge in these two great Abrahamic religions. Findings show that although the principle of monotheism is common between Islam and Judaism, its difference in Islam is the negation of human attributes from the divine essence. Unlike the Qur'an, which considers the knowledge of God Almighty as unlimited, the Torah deals with the divine knowledge as Human science accompanied by limitations, with the feature of regret arising from the deficiency in knowledge and.... Also, in the Torah, the oral traditions of the Jews, many of these attributes are mentioned with other words.
Meaning and Translation of the Words “Al-Bāʿis al-Faqīr”, “AlQāniʿ” and “Al-Muʿtarr” According to the Viewpoints of Meshkini, Makarem Shirazi and Yazdi(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The Holy Qur'an, in verses 28 and 36 of Surah Al-Hajj, commands the eating and feeding of the meat of the Sacrifice of Hajj and determines its consumers as "self", "miserable poor", "Qane’" and "Mu'tar". Through a descriptive method, this research intends to examine the translation and clarification of these concepts by three contemporary jurists and also determine and explain the jurisprudential narrations in deciding the share of Sacrifice of Hajj in the interpretations of the Holy Qur’an and examine and evaluate the appropriateness of lexical and jurisprudential concepts, dictionaries and traditions based on the meaning of the presented words by each of the respected translators<br /><br />Also, this study, using valid narrative sources, interpretations and lexical dictionaries, has tried to explain the characteristics of the three groups of consumers of the sacrifice and the way the three shares of sacrificial meat are distributed among them. Finally, the topic has been summarized and its interpretation in the exigencies based on the Qur’anic verses has been demonstrated.
Existentialistic Analysis of Time-Faith Relation, with a Look at Surah Al-ʿAṣr(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Time is the basis of human life in this world and it is not only his biological background, but also a background for his intelligent life. Man thinks about time and looks at it from the angles of different sciences; from physics to philosophy; and from cosmology to anthropology. The concept of "Time" has also received attention in the Qur'an, and due to the dedication of an independent surah to this concept and the oath to time has assigned a special place to it in the form of the concept of "al-ʿAṣr". The epistemological connection of this concept with the concepts of "Man", "Loss", and "Faith" is very important from an existential point of view, which organizes the current approach in this article. The existential and existentialistic condition of man is the condition of this world that requires timing. This is a possibility for humans, which indicates a time limit for humans. This situation is associated with the feeling of loss in the passage of time, which is absolute and inseparable from the situation of this world. This is the human condition and, of course, it is a condition that presents possibilities to the human being. Time passes on man and confronts man with the concept of eternity and immortality. Eternity is placed in front of man as a possibility to face an existential contradiction in order to achieve salvation as an existential concern by choosing faith in a transcendental and spatial origin and destination.
Pragmatic Approach Towards Translation of the Qur’an: A Comparative Study on Imperatives between Arabic and English(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This comparative study sought to explore the translation of requests between God and Prophet in Holy Quran with focus on pragmatic approach. More specifically, the study highlighted the applied techniques in the translations of Quranic verses based on Bach and Harnish's (1979) model. It further analyzed the differences between the translations and examined the translations accuracy in rendering imperatives’ pragmatics. In doing so, some Surah with the most imperative examples were selected as source text, and two English translations of Holy Quran by Ali (1989) and Arberry (1955) were selected as target text. Based on the data, three types of the techniques as "requestives", "questions", and " requirements" were employed in the most of verses with 9 cases, and "prohibition" found in 6 cases. The identified differences between two translations listed as finding the right equivalents, choosing the correct verb, finding meaning faithfully, preserving the imperative function, selecting the common words in TL, etc. The results also indicated some inaccuracies as lexical and pragmatics, finding right pronoun, transferring the illocutionary force of the source words into the TT, and emphasizing on the same theme with different syntactic form. However, most verses provided the accurate factors as word order, transferring the imperative function based on the first interpretation, adding some words to clarify the context, conveying the intended function through applying the exclamation mark, and keeping culture-specific notion. It is worth mentioning that in most cases, the translators could successfully convey the meaning of Arabic words in to the English ones.
Investigating Principles of Conversation between Jesus (PBUH) and Apostles in the Qur’an, Based on Paul Grice's Theory(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Cognitive linguistics is an approach in the study of language that examines the relationship between his language and mind and his social and physical experiences. Cognitive Linguistics is one of the interdisciplinary sciences whose purpose is reflection and precision in the mechanism of the relationship between the structure and the constituent elements of a text in order to better understand the process of completing the meaning and the concept hidden in it. Herbert Paul Grice is one of the linguistic analytical philosophers that according to this point of view, has conducted detailed and extensive studies on conversations and linguistic actions and their indirect and implicit meaning in everyday language, which has become known as Grice's cooperative principle. Conversation is one of the constructive elements of every narrative text that plays a central role in transferring the meaning. Grice sees conversation as a purposeful and rational behavior and it is a type of cooperation-based interaction that has its own logic. According to his theory, every successful dialogue is based on observing the 4 principles of cooperation (quantity, quality, communication and method) and if any deviation from one or more of the four principles is based on a certain relationship and purpose, it leads to the necessity of communication and if this goal is not provided departing from these principles will lead to the failure of dialogue. Therefore, in this research, some of the conversations between Jesus and the apostles in the Holy Qur'an have been analyzed, based on the theory of Grice's rules in a descriptive and analytical method in order to answer the question of how the cooperative principle is used and violated and what effect these violations have on the meaning and purpose of speaker. The results show that the dialogues of Jesus and the apostles in the Holy Qur'an violate the 4th principle of cooperation. The 3rd principle is most evident that the words of Jesus and the apostles have the quantity of 3 times in the Holy Qur'an and 2 other principles namely the principle of communication and the principle of method have a harmonious participation in the dialogue of the apostles and Jesus.
Investigating the Connection between Hermeneutics and the Method of Understanding the Qur’an in two General and Specific Areas(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Today, hermeneutics and its related debates in the field of the Qur’an are discussed more than past. This research tries to investigate the relationship between hermeneutics and the Qur’an or the method of understanding the Qur’an in two general and special areas, and the questions that: What is the general and special understanding of the Qur’an and what are the criteria for a specific understanding of the Qur’an?<br /><br />Gathering materials in this research is in the form of a library and the method in this research is descriptive and analytical.<br /><br />After the investigations, it became clear that this is not true to consider every understanding correct in philosophical hermeneutics.<br /><br />Also, the Qur’an has levels of understanding, the types of which were mentioned in the article; moreover special understanding of the Qur’an has outward and inward manners. Performing ablution and keeping the mouth clean, etc., are outward manners, and the word of God, knowing the Qur’an, thinking about it, etc. are inward manners. Also, there are rules and criteria for a special understanding of the Qur’an, which can be considered the hermeneutics of the Qur’an.
Applying the Clarification and Impoverishment Components of Berman's Theory in the Qur’anic Translations of Nasser Makarem Shirazi and Hossein Ansarian (Case Study: Surah an-Nabaʿ)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The translation of the Holy Quran as a heavenly book is of great importance and among the two general approaches of translation, i.e. destination-oriented and origin-oriented translation, each of which has its own characteristics; Source-oriented translation is the best type of translation for its life-giving concepts to be transferred to the target language with minimal changes. Berman points to thirteen factors of deviation of the translation from the original text In this essay among the thirteen factors of text distortion, three components of clarification, quantitative enrichment and qualitative enrichment in the translation of Makarem and Ansarian in Surah Al-Naba have been studied. <br /><br />In this article, an attempt is made to examine and analyze its texts by using the descriptive-analytical method based on the comparison of the target text with the source text and to answer these questions: Are there three clear factors Is there quantitative and qualitative enrichment of Berman's theory in the translations? If there is, to what extent? And which one's role is greater? The findings of the research indicate that among the three investigated components the largest number is the clarification component, which shows the desire to explain in the eyes of the two translators. Some unique illustrations and similes of the verses in the source text have not been equated well in the target text, and therefore, according to Berman's theory, the translation has been distorted, clarified and de-enriched in some places.
Conflict between the Criminalization Rules of the Anti-Narcotics Law and Qur’anic Teachings(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In the Anti-Narcotics Law approved in 2016, the legislator has made punishment as the governing criminal policy for drug crimes by determining heavy punishments such as death. The text of the anti-narcotics law has considered "corruption in the world" and "quantitativeness" as criteria for criminalization. In this regard, the question that is raised is: On what basis are the rules of "corruption in the land" and "quantitativeness" established in the anti-narcotics law? By considering the verses and traditions, it can be understood that even if drug crimes are considered as an example of corruption in the world, in order to establish the crime of corruption, qualitative criteria such as the extent of the committed act, major damage to individuals and society, and the continuation of it, are The basic elements are introduced. While the legislator is trying to interpret and clear the ambiguity of the mentioned qualitative criteria by placing the quantity of discovered drugs as the basis. In this writing, using the descriptive-analytical method and relying on reliable Islamic sources, the conclusion has been reached that in order to determine the crime of corruption, qualitative criteria and the extent of the impact that corruption has on individuals and society are considered. Quantitative approach has no Sharia and Quranic basis and contradicts the philosophy of independent criminalization of corruption on earth, which is to eliminate the root of corruption and corruption in society and maintain social order.
Wisdom and Literary Teachings of Swearing at Night from the Root "Layl" in the Holy Qur’an(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The words of the Qur'an are wise and truths can be discovered from it with literary sciences. The question of this research is"What is the wisdom and literary teachings of swearing at night from the root "Layl" in the Holy Quran?" With a descriptive and analytical method, some of these teachings taken from literary sciences are: 1)oath to the whole, beginning, middle or end of the night and ten nights; Expressing the importance of division. 2)The verbs "Yaghshi" and "Yaser" express the gradual occurrence of night. 3)Removing the object "yaghshi" which means generalization and the object "yaghsha" land and other things. 4)"Al" gender or promise in "Al-Lail"(Fajr:4) indicates the gender of the night or a certain night. 5)The inflection of "Al-layl" to "Layal-e-Ashr" is a general over specific expression, and the inflection to "al-Fajr" is an opposite. 6)Allowing the removal of the "y" at the end of "Yasr"(Fajr:4) to express the eloquence of the speech; The permission to remove the adaf in (Shishq:17) expresses the generality. 7)Golding "Layal" expressing the greatness and designation of special nights. 8)The ratio of "Ghashi", "Saja", "Yaser" to "Al-Layl" is allowed by reason of the ratio of verb or cause to time. 9)"Sajji", "Wasaqh", "Aasas", "Yaser" are metaphors for things related to the night. 10)"Aasas" is an allusion to the end of the night. 11)contrast of night with day or night with morning; Expressing the difference between natural works or the two faces of right and wrong.