There are many factors affecting Foreign Direct Investment inflows into the countries. One of them is Special Economic Zones that encourage Foreign Direct Investment inflows and achieve remarkable results in the world. Special Economic Zones are defined in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development as the regions where production, trade and storage are not limited to time and are exempt from customs and taxes. This study analyzed the relationship between the Foreign Direct Investment inflows of Turkey, the Foreign Direct Investment inflows of the World and the number of the Special Economic Zone types analyzed using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Method from 1980 to 2019. The results show that Foreign Direct Investment inflows of the World have a positive and significant effect on Foreign Direct Investment inflows Turkey in the long term and the short term. Also, the number of total Special Economic Zone has a positive and significant on the Foreign Direct Investment inflows of Turkey. Foreign Direct Investment inflows of Turkey increase 1.01% and 2.58% in long term and short term, respectively when the increase is 1% in the number of total Special Economic Zone. Moreover in this study, a number of the Special Economic Zone types such as OIZ, TDZ, FZ have been analyzed .
Sustainability reporting is an important tool for decreasing information asymmetry, according to the stakeholders' demands for transparency. On the other hand, increasing transparency allows investors to have more appropriate evaluations of firms' activities and direct their investments to companies with more enthusiasm. In the organizational context, information asymmetry creates conflict between owners and managers. Managers tend to reduce the gap between themselves and stakeholders, particularly shareholders, by producing and delivering reports. Companies use sustainability reports to connect with their society and environment, as well as a way to manage interactions with various stakeholders for societal approval and activity continuation. The primary purpose of this study is to provide a model for measuring the quality of sustainability reporting and the determinants. In terms of methodology, the current study is qualitative, deductive, cross-sectional, applied, and exploratory. The criteria were identified and extracted, then evaluated and prioritized using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making approaches including Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Analytic Network Process-based. The FAHP test revealed that of the six indicators, the GRI's reporting guidelines for sustainability Checklist were placed highest. Internal Controls Reporting, Sustainability Innovation Performance, and Earnings Quality rated first to third, respectively, among the 25 criteria affecting the quality of sustainability reporting, according to the FDANP.
Given the lack of a specific approach to the explanation of values of optimal portfolio weights in the portfolio optimization, the present study aimed to examine large-scale portfolio optimization according to both stock weighting and utilization of SCAD function to minimize the portfolio risk based on the "weight-modified conditional value at risk (CVaR)" and its comparison with the "conditional value at risk (CVaR)" method in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Therefore, the price information of companies listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange and Over-the-counter (OTC) from 2012 to the end of September 2020 was collected, screened, and analyzed daily, and then the risk and return of the portfolios were examined by forming optimal portfolios. The results indicated that the efficiency limit of the stock portfolio and also the ranks of different companies were different according to the types of the optimization method. Based on the behavior of the TEDPIX, the investors' degrees of risk-taking, and the risk management, diversification, and computational complexity of each method, the weight-modified CVaR had a better performance due to better diversification and risk management. Furthermore, the SCAD function added computational complexity to this method .
Asset allocation has always been a challenging issue / for individuals and businesses to survive in our competitive world. One of the famous businesses, which has an enormous impact on people's lives worldwide, is the pension industry. Pension funds- as Defined Benefit, Defined Contribution, or others- accept reserves from contributors and try to invest them in a way to keep up with their obligations in the future or even pay more than that. The equity market has been one of the good choices for investment as pension funds try to reach a particular rate of return to maximize their wealth while considering not crossing red lines in taking risks. This paper will detail the new mathematical model for finding optimal stock portfolios using Generalized Co-Lower Partial Moment as a risk measure to minimize portfolio optimization. On the other hand, it introduces new tailored Expected Utility as a performance metric to maximize in this model. The proposed model's issue against previous studies is considering risk aversion and target rate of investment return as two significant investor characteristics. This is based on price returns' simulation of candidate stocks in TSE while using accurate and nonparametric Probability Density Function in historical data analysis.
Financial constraints are one of the influencing factors on investment decisions. Financial constraints put firms under pressure to forgo investment opportunities to finance their working capital needs. Moreover, some variables like working capital needs and liquidity of a firm are likely to affect the relationship between these two variables. Hence, this study seeks to examine the effect of short-term credit constraints on the investment of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), firms with different characteristics in comparison with large-sized firms. In addition, this correlation is tested by considering the effect of mentioned moderating variables (working capital and liquidity). The sample of this study includes the firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2011 to 2018, which are considered as SMEs based on some criteria. Multivariate regression models and E-views software are used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicated that short-term credit constraints negatively affect corporate investment. It means that constrained firms invest in fewer investment opportunities because of facing source shortages. Moreover, in companies requiring more working capital, the inverse effect of short-term credit constraints on corporate investment is stronger. Such firms suffer from financial problems and are not able to use their investment opportunities. Additionally, this hypothesis that companies with high liquidity can offset u effects of short-term financial constraints on fixed investment, is not confirmed
The growth and complexity of society justify the need for relevant economic information, information systems, and information-generating processes, and the need for auditing as part of the information reporting process increases. This has affected the professional functions of auditors. The purpose of this research is to choose the influential dimension of mindfulness of auditors' professional judgments based on social pressure analysis based on Rough Theory. The methodology of this research is mixed and it has been used by Meta-synthesis, Delphi and Rough Theory. The target population was the qualitative, similar research and academic experts in the field of accounting. However, the target population in a small number of 19 audit partners had more than 5 years of work experience, which is acceptable from the statistical population due to the requirement of Ruff theory analysis. In this study, based on the Meta-synthesis analysis of selected researches, 4 propositions of pressures based on social compliance and 3 components of auditors' professional judgment were determined. The results in this section show that the most effective proposition of social compliance pressures was the market pressure proposition, which affects the inferential consciousness of auditors in their professional judgment and violates the auditors' mental functions such as skepticism and objectivity.