It has been widely stated in the theoretical literature that political connections increase the value of organizations. Political connections may have both a positive and negative effect on the performance of the bank. Politically connected banks may have better access to financing, timely liquidity support from the central bank or banks which are connected with other political organizations and reduction in the pressure of legal authorities if such a reduction is possible, such as the easy passage of legal inspection. A politically connected bank can also use communications to exchange assistance to achieve the organization's goals. Therefore, answering the question of whether banks' political connections have a positive or negative impact on their financial performance cannot be answered with certainty. This study attempts to investigate the effects of interactions between politically connected CEO (PCCEO), independent directors, and credit risk of banks in an emerging country context where corporate governance systems appear weak. In this study, to collect the required data, we use the information database of Codal publishers for the listed banks in the Tehran Stock Exchange and the information existing in the performance report of the Iranian banks for public banks that collected by the Iran Banking Institute. For the investigation of this issue, we employ the SGMM method (System Generalized Method of Moments) or in other words, dynamic GMM approach, and we find politically connected boards to exert significant influence on credit risk.
An investigating of the impacts of external and internal organizational factors of the privatization process on the management accounting practices and its impact on the financial performance of companies (Evidence from Iran)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of external and internal organizational factors of the privatization process on the management accounting practices and the impact of these changes on the financial performance of listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange that more than 51% of the companies' shares have been transferred to the private sector. This research, based on institutional and structural theories, provides an exhaustive explanation of management accounting practices changes by considering the conflict of the internal and external factors and the role of the human factor in the privatization process. In this study, according to the general policies of Article 44, to increase competitive advantage, management accounting has been used as a mediating variable in the relationship between privatization and financial performance. To this research, 60 companies which their ownership transferred to the private sector during the period from 2002 to 2018 were investigated. To collect data, questionnaire survey and companies financial statements were adopted and to test the hypothesis Structural equation modeling using Smart PLS software. The findings of the study show that external and internal organizational factors in the privatization process, have a significant impact on the management accounting practices that these changes effects on the financial performance of companies. The result is that in the privatization process, the external and internal organizational factors and contradiction of the incompatibility of these factors with the human factor provide the conditions for management accounting practices changes that effect on the financial performance of companies. The results of the current study could be useful for the effectiveness of management accounting changes and their impact on the financial performance of companies in the integration and acquisition process in developing countries.
Resource allocation, as the main objective of managerial science, requires analyzing the long- and short-term effects of a policy, although this analysis would be more difficult in dynamic and volatile industries such as financial technology. Moreover, the integration of industries leads to more diverse product categories for a single company and makes it difficult for the implementation of decision making about resource allocation. In this regard, systemic PPM (PPM) models can be applied to balance long- and short-term generated values of the company by adopting policies about resource allocation for different products with respect to risk management concepts. The proposed systemic model should include interrelationships between different products, time relevant, and most importantly the potentials of dynamic analysis of product strategies, which is the main purpose of this research. The research strategy is to conduct a case study on the Iranian financial technology industry, by using systemic PPM modeling. In this research, a dynamic model was used in the payment industry, due to its competitive forces. Thus, system dynamics methodology was the research tool for analyzing data. Further, four cycles of risk management, resource allocation, innovation, and development were identified and then, analyzed in a dynamic approach to evaluating their efficiency for business development. Based on the results, the system dynamics methodology provided great outcomes for this problem. Finally, scenario analysis, focus, deep understandings of the decision-making process with respects to mental models, and stock and flow diagrams were among the most significant findings of this article.
The Relationship between Technology Use Factors based on the Developed Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology with Auditors' Ethical Behavior
This study aims to investigate the relationship between technology use factors based on the developed unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (DUTAUT) with auditors' ethical behavior. This research is applied and descriptive-correlational and its population include various auditors of Iran, 164 of whom are selected using simple random sampling. Structural equations and Smart PLS software analysis are also used to test the hypotheses. The findings show that there is a positive and significant relationship between technology use factors based on DUTAUT, including motivational components, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, and social effects, and ethical behavior of auditors. Other findings show that there is a positive and significant relationship between motivation (64%), effort expectancy (31%), and social effects (43%) with auditors' ethical behavior at the 95% confidence level. Given that the use of technology is expanding and is in line with current social needs and increases the level of ethical behavior in auditors, it is necessary to pay more attention to it in order to increase the ethical climate in this profession.
In recent years, corporate sustainability reporting and its effective dimensions on it have always been considered from the perspective of users of financial reporting. Sustainability reporting is the environmental, social, and economic achievements of a company and shows how the organization implements its development plans in the future, taking into account these issues. In this study, the relationship between CEO power, life cycle, and sustainability reporting has been investigated and the effect of international relations has been considered. To investigate this issue, 4 hypotheses were developed and tested with a sample consisting of 119 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange in the period 2012 to 2019. The results showed that CEO power has a negative effect on sustainability reporting and life cycle has a positive effect on the relationship between CEO power and sustainability reporting. The results of the study did not confirm the adjusting effect of international relations on the relationship between CEO power and sustainability reporting, while the results showed that international relations hurt the relationship between life cycle and corporate sustainability reporting.
Investigating the Relationship between Voluntary Disclosure and Financial Performance and Earnings Management (Emphasizing the Moderating Role of the Corporate Life Cycle)
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between voluntary disclosure and earnings management and financial performance during the life cycle of the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. The statistical population of the study included all listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange since 2013-2018. In this study, earnings management, the financial performance of the companies (including return on equity, returns on assets, Tobin Q ratio, economic value-added, and refined economic value added) were the dependent variables, and the level of voluntary disclosure was the independent variable and the life cycle of the company was considered as the moderating variable. Also, in order to test the research hypotheses, a linear multivariate regression model using combined data was used. The results showed that earnings management and financial performance indicators have a significant relationship with voluntary disclosure over the life cycle. Accordingly, an increase in the level of voluntary disclosure increased the company's performance. Also, the results of the study indicated that the company's life cycle mediates the relationship between the level of voluntary disclosure and the company's performance.