In order to increase the efficiency and productivity of employees and organizations industrial and organizational psychologists have identified and examined the important psychological structures affecting the effectiveness of organizations and to achieve this goal the variables of job enthusiasm, authentic leadership and scientific optimism have always been considered.The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediator role of the scientific optimism in relationship between authentic leadership andteachers' job engagement. The study is an applied descriptive correlational one in which he statistical population consisted of all English language teachers in the city of Sanandaj from among which 190 individuals were selected as samples based on Morgan Table and using a random stratified method. They responded to three questionnaires of authentic leadership, academic optimism, and job engagement. The results were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. Findings indicated that that authentic leadership has a direct effect on scientific optimism, scientific optimism has a direct effect on job enthusiasm, and authentic leadership has a direct effect on scientific optimism. furthermore, authenticleadership through scientific optimism has an indirect effect on job engagement and the hypothetical model of the research showed a good fit. Therefore, it can be said that authentic leadership and academic optimism are important variables that are closely related to job engagement in teachers.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Distributed Leadership on Job Satisfaction of teachers, and then determine the effects of DL and teachers' JS on the academic performance of high school students. This study was a descriptive-correlational work in terms of methodology and theoretical-applied work in terms of purpose. The statistical population of this study included two groups of stakeholders, namely teachers and 11th-grade students at high schools in Khuzestan province, Iran. Multi-stage cluster sampling used for sampling; accordingly, 52 out of 270 active schools in Khuzestan province were selected as samples. On average, seven teachers from each school and all 11th-grade students from those schools who took the final exams participated in the study. The measurement tool for DL and JS was a Questionnaire with an alpha coefficient of 0.83, and 0.96. Final exam scores were also used to measure students' academic performance. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between all variables of DL and teachers' JS. Also, all variables of DL had a significant relationship with students' academic performance. The results of the regression analysis showed that JS and variables of DL are good predictors of students' academic performance. Finally, the results of this study showed that the outcomes of distributed leadership for schools are not limited to teachers' job satisfaction; but it affects directly and indirectly on one of the most important missions of the school - the improvement of student academic performance. This three-dimensional package is a necessity for 21 st -century schools' effectiveness.
This research has been done with a mixed exploratory method with the aim of identifying the perception and the degree of observance of professional ethics of school principals. The required data were collected using a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The statistical population of the study included all secondary school principals in Birjand. In quantitative phase, 75 people were selected as a sample by relative random sampling. 375 people were selected to be surveyed about the level of professional ethics of their managers. Then, based on the analysis of the findings of the quantitative stage of the research, the participants in the qualitative stage of the research (16 people) were selected by purposive sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistical indicators were used to analyze quantitative data and interpretive analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The results show that from the perspective of teachers, the professional ethics of principal is at a desirable level. Also, the variables of gender and level of education did not make a significant difference in the level of observance of managers' professional ethics. The results of the qualitative phase of the research also represented school principals' perceptions of professional ethics in five main dimensions, including benefit-oriented ethics, person-centered ethics, duty-based ethics, rights-oriented ethics, & justice-oriented ethics. Each of which included several categories. Also, the results obtained from data analysis showed that school principals have a better understanding of task-oriented ethics than other dimensions of professional ethics and benefit-oriented ethics is at a higher level in terms of compliance than other dimensions. But the dimension of justice-oriented ethics was lower than other dimensions in terms of both understanding and observance.
The present study seeks to determine the components and features of school as a neighborhood educational center. When paying attention to and responding to the needs and desires of students, parents and the community is the main mission of a school and in line with this goal, in addition to using the actual facilities, seeks to discover potential facilities inside and outside the school, an important thing is happening, and that is the penetration of the school in its local context. When the needs and wants of the audience are taken into account in a school and there is hope for local facilities, and utilization of spiritual, human and natural resources, the school grows and develops. Accordingly, the present study was conducted using a qualitative approach and grounded theory method on a population consisting of 24 experts in education, as well as university professors, Farhangian University, Education Research Institute and school principals. The research sample was selected using purposive and snowball sampling and data collection was done through semi-structured interviews. Three stages of open, axial and selective coding are used in data analysis and the model of Neighborhood Educational Center School is divided into six categories: causal conditions, axial phenomenon (Neighborhood Educational Center School), mediating conditions, intervening conditions, Neighborhood Educational Center school strategies and consequences. And was presented. As a result, 28 core categories and 50 subcategories were obtained. The core category of the proposed model is the neighborhood educational center school, which includes 3 core categories (the concept of the neighborhood educational center school, the main features and elements of the neighborhood educational center school and 26 sub-categories. Also, control and evaluation by participating members (review of the designed model and problem solving) and the criteria of trustability, transferability, generality, and reliability were used.
The method of the present study was descriptive-correlation with structural equations approach and applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study includes all students of football schools in Tehran province. Cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. The measurement tools of the present study include demographic characteristics of the participants in the study, Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry (1988) Perceived Service Quality Assessment Questionnaire, Groth (2005) Customer Behavior Questionnaire and Perceived Risk Questionnaire Carroll, Connaught, Spengler & Byon (2014). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to show the normality of data distribution and bootstrap methods and structural equations using PLS and SPSS software were used to analyze the research data. The results showed that the quality of perceived services and citizenship behavior (β = 0.852); (T = 15.549) at the level of significance (P <0.01); Indirect effect of perceived service quality and citizenship behavior through perceived risk (β = -0.027); T-statistic (T = 1.774) is at the level of significance (P <0.076). Considering that perceived risk is one of the determining elements in the acceptance and intention of students to use football schools and their citizenship behavior is one of the factors reducing this risk, it is suggested. Football school principals to increase the quality of perceived services and student citizenship behavior among their staff, coaches and customers so that they can identify different dimensions of perceived risk among their school students for better productivity. And make the necessary plans to advance marketing goals.
Abstract Lack of effective leadership is not only seen in economic organizations but also in education departments and all other institutions. What sometimes results in issues for some organizations is people, such as incompatible leaders, who do not play their critical role of leadership effectively and efficiently. The present applied and descriptive-correlational study aims to investigate the relationship between incompatible leadership and job plateau, burnout, and stress in first- and second-grade high school teachers. The statistical population of the research included all first- and second-grade high school teachers (1972). Accordingly, 322 individuals were selected as the research sample using the simple random sampling method. Data collection tools were Schmidt Incompatible Leadership Questionnaire (2008), Milliman Occupational Plateau Questionnaire (1992), Maslach Occupational Burnout Questionnaire (1985), and Sargi Job Stress Questionnaire (2015). The reliability of the questionnaires was 0.81, 0.90, 0.84, and 0.76, respectively, using Cronbach's alpha; the content validity was also confirmed. Data were analyzed using univariate t, correlation coefficient, and stepwise regression. Findings showed incompatible leadership of managers and occupational burnout and stress in school teachers to be at a low level, while their plateau was at a high level. Moreover, a positive and significant relationship was observed between incompatible leadership and job plateau and burnout of teachers; however, there was no relationship between incompatible leadership and job stress. Among components of incompatible leadership, authoritarian leadership could predict job plateau, abusive supervision and authoritarian leadership could predict job burnout, and abusive supervision could predict job stress. Thus, it is recommended that school principals reduce the stress, plateau, and burnout of teachers, as well as identifying the components of incompatible leadership and avoiding them in schools.
Sustainable development does not work without education and both without the institutionalization of research. The first condition is to pay attention to research in all parts of the school, which is achieved in the form of a researcher school. The present study was conducted with the aim of designing and validating the researcher school model using a combined method of multi-stage exploratory type. In the qualitative part of the study, the phenomenological strategy was performed and the quantitative part of the study was performed through factor analysis. Methods of obtaining data: included semi-structured individual interviews with educational scientists and qualitative analysis of texts. In order to assess the accuracy of the interview questions, the question form was reviewed by 10 experts and professors in the field of educational sciences. The continuity of the interview form has been examined by providing a summary of the identified topics and topics to three experts through qualitative study methods and applying their opinions. 30 professors of Farhangian University and PhD students of educational sciences, experts of relevant departments of the Ministry of Education, successful principals and teachers in the country were selected by purposive sampling method. In this study, the components of values, learning education activities, professional competencies, educational-executive structure, out-of-school interactions and equipment are of equal importance for scientific experts and professors.
Abstract The present study is a qualitative research with a phenomenological approach that has been conducted to identify the dimensions and components of professional development of primary school principals and to develop its framework. The statistical population of the study was the principals of public primary schools in Tehran in the academic year of 2019-2020. In two stages of sampling, samples were selected by quota and then purposive sampling methods. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The interview continued until the data exploration and data collection process reached a theoretical saturation point after interviewing 14 people. Data were analyzed by open and axial coding steps. Two methods of verifying the interviewees and verifying an external expert were used to control the validity. Two methods of verifying the interviewees and verifying an external expert were used to control the validity. To determine the reliability, two methods of reviewing the writings and also the method of recoding were used. The agreement was calculated in the coding homogeneity and the agreement coefficient was 86%. Findings showed that the professional development framework for primary school principals has 3 dimensions, 14 components with 117 indicators Which includes : the content dimension of professional development (with components of general management knowledge, specialized management knowledge, interactive skills, resource management skills, professional skills, personal inclinations, managerial attitude, physical and mental ability and intellectual ability), the dimension of professional development process (with the components of self-development actions and developer relations) and the dimension of organizational requirements (with the components of knowledge acquisition and acquisition of skills, modification of selection and appointment methods of managers, improvement of organizational structure and processes).
Achieving the goals of educational systems and responding correctly to the expectations of students, parents and teachers depend on the existence of efficient and effective educational administrators and their beliefs. Therefore, the attention of education researchers is focused on the understanding of management in educational settings. Since individuals' beliefs cause the creation of personality structures, so the study of managers' personality structures can be helpful in selecting, transferring and relocating educational managers on a scientific basis, recognizing the necessary components of management to establish training courses, predicting future actions of managers and reducing skepticism and uncertainty and identifying the stylistic complexity of managers. On the other hand, structures enable educational administrators to better fulfill their professional mission. Based on the importance of this issue, the main purpose of the study was to identify and compare the personal structures of management among school principals. In the present study, in order to achieve the personal construct of managers, an interpretive approach and a qualitative method of case study were used. Participants included all public school principals in Sanandaj who were employed in 2021 and had more than one year of managerial experience. Therefore, sampling was done in a target based using the criterion method. Also, the number of samples was appropriate for the Repertory Grid Technique which is usually used for the sample with small number, 43 novice and experienced Principal were chosen. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a Repertory Grid Matrix. Finally, 575 personal construct were extracted during 43 interviews. Content analysis with the unit of subject was applied for the data analysis. The collected data of the personal construct of administrator were classified in 4 main categories and 13 sub-categories, which included issues as morality, relationship, personal features and intellectual-functional. The results of this study indicates that the highest percentage of personal constructs of novice and experienced managers is in the category of communication and the lowest percentage of personal structures for novice managers is in the category of intellectual-operational and also for experienced managers is in the category of ethics.
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between learning climate and organizational agility in managers of Marivan Education Department. Regarding the classification of the research based on the method, this study was a descriptive correlational research. The population consisted of all managers (150 people) of Marivan Education Department in 2019-2020. The members of the statistical sample were 106 people. Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size. This study used a random sampling method. To collect data, Marsick and Watkins's (2003) questionnaire of learning climate quality and Sharifi and Zhang's (2004) organizational agility questionnaire. First, 20 questionnaires with confirmed validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the learning climate quality questionnaire was 0.73 and for the organizational agility questionnaire 0.86) were distributed, and then 86 questionnaires were distributed and the results were collected. To answer the main hypothesis of the research, the structural equation method and PLS software were used. The results showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the learning climate and the variables of organizational agility. Also, it was found that the variable of learning climate could predict the changes in the variable of organizational agility and its components. Besides providing the appropriate learning climate for the staff of the organization through education, an increased sense of trust in all organizational levels will increase the organization and staff agility.