Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory

Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, Volume 2, Issue 8, Winter 2020



The Comparison between the Effectiveness of Two Educational Methods of Learning by Summarizing, and Learning through Teaching on the Comprehension Male Students

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The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two educational methods of learning by summarizing, and learning through teaching on the comprehension of sixth grade elementary male students. This was an applied study and the research design was experimental with a pre-test and post-test approach and the control group. The study population included all sixth grade male students at Allameh Tabataba'i School, who were studying in the academic year of 2018-2019. The random available sampling method was used in this study. The total number of students were 59, all of which were participated in the study and divided into three different groups by random convenience sampling method. Then, the first experiment group members (15 subjects) were trained in 8 learning sessions through teaching method. The subjects in the second experimental group (15 subjects) were trained in 8 learning sessions by summarizing method. The control group (n = 29) received no training. Two researcher-made questionnaires were designed to assess the comprehension level of the students. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance in the SPSS software. Emphasizing the findings of the research, it can be argued that both learning methods had a favorable effect on the students' comprehension, and increased the students' comprehension level. Based on these findings, one can conclude that these two educational methods have a great impact on increasing the comprehension of sixth grade elementary students.

The Effectiveness of Attention Facilitator-Inhibitor Rehabilitation on Executive Functions and Visual Perception of Children with Learning Disorder on the Basis of Integrated SNP/CHC Model

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Executive functions and visual perception are variables that play important roles in learning and educational improvement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of attention rehabilitation on executive functions and visual perception of students with learning disorder and the study was of quasi - experimental type with pre-test, post-test and control group. The statistical population included all elementary school students in Rafsanjan in the second semester of 2018. The sampling method was multi-stage cluster method and the statistical sample of research involved 20 students with specific learning disorders, selected and replaced by a simple random method in two groups of experiment and control groups (2 groups of ten). The research tools were the visual perception test of Frostig and the Wisconsin cards. After performing pre-test on both control and experimental groups, the experimental group was trained using Captain Log software for 12 session, and at the end, the post-test was performed on both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS v.24 software and statistical analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The results of statistical analysis showed that attention facilitator rehabilitation is effective in improving students' ability in visual perception test. Also, the results revealed that rehabilitation of attention can significantly improve the performance of children with learning disorder in the executive functions.

Effects of Mental Fatigue on Memory Function of Expert Chess Players

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Mental fatigue is a factor that may influence performance of chess players. However, effects of mental fatigue on performance of chess players are rarely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of exposure to a mental fatigue protocol on memory function (pattern recall performance) of expert chess players. Thirty expert chess players (55-65 years-old) were randomly assigned into mental fatigue and control groups. Participants in the mental fatigue group were asked to (re-)place observed ordinary and random chess positions on a blank chessboard before and after exposing to a 30-minutes’ mental fatigue protocol. The control group followed the same procedure but they read a text about history of chess instead of exposing to mental fatigue protocol. Two ordinary and two random chess positions were used to measure pattern recall performances in pre- and post-tests. Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the subjective rating of mental fatigue and motivation for upcoming pattern recall task. Results showed that exposing to mental fatigue protocol increased the subjective rating of mental fatigue significantly in the mental fatigue group. Moreover, motivation was not different between the groups before performing pattern recall task in posttest. Also, results revealed that exposing to mental fatigue protocol impaired pattern recall performance of expert chess players. Finally, expert chess players performed significantly better in recalling ordinary positions than random positions. Findings of the study can add to the existing knowledge on effects of mental fatigue on a variety of sporting context and also provide support for Chunking Theory of Memory and Template Theory.

Teaching Literacy Skills through Multimodal Texts

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Multimodal Discourse is a theory of communication in multimedia. The notion of modes refers to semiotic resources which allow the simultaneous realization of discourses and types of (inter)action. Media are the material resources being used for the production such as music, language, and images. This study examined Iranian EFL learners’ perception of multimodal texts. The objective of the study was to examine how Iranian EFL learners utilized their general literacy practices and multimodal repertoires to develop their meaning-making process. The participants were 18 intermediate EFL learners attending Iran Language Institute (ILI), and were exposed to advertisement materials. They were asked to reconstruct their perceptions both visually and verbally. The participants’ responses were analyzed according to the social semiotics model suggested by Kress and van Leeuwen (2001). Results revealed that the participants made contextualized perceptions of the advertisement materials indicating their sociocultural framework. Moreover, applying multimodal knowledge, the students promoted their learning status via transformative self-affected strategies. Multimodal/multiliteracies pedagogy could promote EFL students' critical literacy practices to develop new worldviews and question the imposing discursive moments.

The Role of Achievement Motivation and Test Anxiety in Predicting Students' Self-handicapping and Procrastination

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The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the achievement motivation and test anxiety in predicting students' self-handicapping and procrastination. The method was descriptive-correlational, and the statistical population included all young students of the University of Applied Sciences and Technology of East Tehran; who were studying in one of the faculties of this university in the academic year of 2017-2018. The Cochran's sample size estimation formula was used to determine the sample size, which were 340 people. The sampling was done on a basis of a random multi-step way. Edward E. Jon's self-efficacy scale, Herman's motivated progress, Solomon's and Rathblum's procrastination, and Sarason's test anxiety were used in the study in order to collect the data. The SPSS 24 and Pearson correlation and canonical correlation methods were used to analyze the data. The findings showed that predicting the variable of procrastination based on test anxiety variables and achievement motivation is significant (p .

Predictors of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about Language Learning / Teaching: Critical Thinking, Reflectivity and Emotional Intelligence in Focus

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This study examined the relationship between EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, critical thinking, and reflectivity and their language learning as well as teaching beliefs. It investigated how well each of the variables can predict EFL teachers’ language learning beliefs and its respective levels. Accordingly, four questionnaires were given to 130 EFL teachers, and the elicited data were analyzed via correlational and multiple/multivariate regression analyses. Results revealed that 18% of teachers’ beliefs was significantly explained by the triplex unity. Critical thinking and emotional intelligence had significant contributions of 25% and 19%, respectively. The collective contributions of the three variables were only significant to three of the five dependent levels, i.e. 8% to language nature, 17% to motivation and expectation, and 22% to learning and communication. Accordingly, some pedagogical implications were elucidated.

The Relationship between Executive Functions and Self-Regulated Academic Learning Regarding the Mediating Role of Metacognition and Working Memory among University Students

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Today, education experts mostly aim to detect significant causal variables leading to students’ achievements in educational settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between executive functions and self-regulated academic learning regarding the mediating role of metacognition and working memory among university students. This research was a correlational study using structural equation modeling. The statistical population included of all students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in the academic year 2018-2019. A total of 351 students were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling. The research instrument included the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), Cognitive Abilities Questionnaire, the Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), and the Test of Information Processing Skills (TIPS). The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The findings revealed no significant and direct relationship between executive functions and self-regulated academic learning (P>0.05). However, there was a significant and direct relationship between executive functions with metacognition and working memory (p <0.01). Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between metacognition and working memory with academic self-regulated academic learning (p <0.01). In this regard, metacognition and working memory fully mediated the relationship between executive functions and self-regulated academic learning. The study findings provide university students and experts with an appropriate model since, as the theoretical foundations of the proposed model documented, academic achievement and well-being are mainly dependent on executive functions. Accordingly, metacognitive skills, including self-regulated academic learning, can be improved by promoting the executive functions among university students.