Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the mediator role of learning strategies in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and test anxiety. Method: This research was done in a descriptive-correlational manner. The sample of study consisted of 350 public high school students from four high schools in Kerman selected by random multistage cluster sampling method. To gather the data, the academic self-efficacy Scale (Jinks- Morgan, 1999), learning strategies scale (Kember et al., 2004), and the test anxiety scale (Friedman-Jacob, 1997) were used. Results: Path analysis results showed that Academic self-efficacy had both direct (=−.20), and indirect effects, mediated by Deep and Surface strategies (=−.08). Deep learning strategy was the strongest predictor, with a direct effect value of -0.32. The explanatory power of the predictors on test anxiety was medium (R2= 0.36). Conclusion: According to the results, the learning strategies (deep) and academic self-efficacy had a significant effect on students' test anxiety. Therefore, strengthening of this individual feature in students can lead to the better performance of students in the exam situation by decreasing test anxiety.
The purpose of the present study was to construct and normalization the pre-school students' learning disability test. A researcher-made visual-spatial test consists of seven sections (symbolization, space status, visual distinction, visual argumentation, visual memory sequence, maze, and rotational form) its content validity is confirmed by psychology professors and then was performed on a sample of 206 preschool students. The questions were analyzed, and their validity, reliability and cut point were determined. This test has enough reliability. To determine the validity of construct and composing component of the tests, the main component by rotation in Varimax normalized method was used. In analysis of the factors of questions in spatial perception subtest, seven of which were namable. Conformity factor analysis was also used to determine the validity of factors: the conformity factor analysis confirmed that the structure of questionnaire had an acceptable fitness to the data. independent t-test demonstrated that there is a significant difference between average scores of the students with learning disability and normal. To investigate convergent validity, we used the checklist of learning disability that simultaneously was completed by the mothers. The results of Chi-Squared test demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between these two variables, the completed checklist by mothers and completed learning disability test by children.
Emotional-behavioral problems are common in preschool-children and might have some destructive effects on them as well as others. Sand tray therapy is an effective technique that encourages children to express their thoughts, feelings, and conflicts through symbolic expression and story. In this technique a person has an opportunity to resolve conflicts, remove obstacles, and gain acceptance of self. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of sand tray therapy on reducing emotional-behavioural problems among preschool children. A randomized controlled trial method was applied in this research. The statistical population consisted of preschool children who suffered from behavioural-emotional problems in Tehran in 2016. Three centers were randomly selected from preschool centers in Tehran. The scale of Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents. 24 children whose scores placed between the boundary range of 65<T69 were identified and they were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (12 in per group). The experimental group was individually treated using the sand tray, but the control group did not receive any treatment. ANCOVA test was used for data analysis by SPSS 22. The results showed that sand tray therapy could reduce anxiety/depression and social problems (in the area of emotional problems) and aggression (in the area of the behavioral problem) in preschool children significantly. According to the results, it is recommended that child psychologists apply the sand tray therapy for reduction some of emotional-behavioural problems such as anxiety, depression, and social problems in preschool children.
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of emotion-focused processing strategies training on academic adjustment of girl high school students in Kerman. This study was applied in terms of purpose and pseudo-experimental with pretest, posttest, and control-experimental groups in terms of data collection. The population of this study includes all female students of secondary school in Kerman, who are studying in the school year 2017. Sample size based on the type of research, 30 female students were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The studied sample based on research objectives included 30 high school students (15 subjects in each group). Both groups answered the academic adjustment questionnaire before and after the implementation of training process. The experimental group received emotion-focused processing strategies for eight sessions of 90 minutes and the control group received no training. The data were used by the statistical methods of mean, standard deviation, and analysis of covariance. The results showed that emotion-focused processing strategies training had a significant effect on academic adjustment of girl high school students at p<0.01 level.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using motivation strategies on EFL teachers’ motivation and reflective teaching. In order to do this, 30 Iranian female EFL teachers who were the researcher’s colleagues and expressed their willingness to participate in this study were selected. The group filled out a reflective teaching questionnaire by Akbari, Behzadpour, and Dadvand (2010) and motivation strategies questionnairre by Chastain (1988) as the pretest at the outset of the study and subsequently sat for a workshop where the researcher introduced motivation strategies and techniques to them. Following the end of the workshop, the teachers went back to their routine teaching program for 15 sessions and the researcher administered the reflectivity questionnaire and motivation strategies questionnaire as the posttest to the 30 teachers after those 15 sessions. In order to test the null hypotheses, that is to check any significant difference in the degree of the reflective teaching and motivation of the group prior to and after the treatment, a paired samples t-test was conducted in this research. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the participants’ scores on the motivation pretest and posttest; favoring the posttest. Also,there was a significant difference between the participants’ scores on the reflective teaching pretest and posttest, favoring the posttest. Therefore, the results showed that motivation strategies significantly affect the teachers’ motivation and reflective teaching.
The main goal of this paper is to identify the relationship between achievement goals and academic self-efficacy with academic success. It was attempted to investigate the mediating role of academic self-efficacy in the relationship between achievement goals with academic success. The sample of this study comprised 220 subjects, in different ages including both women and men. The instruments used are the achievement goals orientations contained 14 items (Midgley et al., 2000), the 8-item academic self-efficacy for Learning and Performance for College students (Pintrich et al, 1991) and college GPA. The results indicated that mastery goals, performance-approach goals and self-efficacy had a significant relationship with academic success. The results showed that self-efficacy has the facilitative role on the relationship between mastery goals and performance-approach goals for academic success and mastery goals and self-efficacy could be strongly useful in the motivating strategies for enhancing learning.
The present study aimed to evaluate a new model of students' emotions in which the role of teachers' social-emotional competencies, social teaching practices, and their emotions was considered. To this aim, 303 six-grade students (150 females and 153 males) and their teachers were selected as the participants from Yazd in 2018. Then, the students were asked to answer a questionnaire on the students' emotion, whether positive or negative, and the teachers completed two questionnaires on social-emotional competencies, social teaching practices, and their emotion. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that teachers who had social-emotional competencies and the ability to complement their social teaching practices could experience more positive emotion and interactions with their students. In addition, their students experienced positive classroom atmosphere, which stimulated the students' motivation. Finally, it was concluded the teachers' social-emotional teaching competencies played an indirect effect on the students' emotion via the teachers' positive emotions.