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منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۹, Issue ۳۷, Autumn ۲۰۲۱ 31 - 48
This study sought to evaluate the usefulness and desirability of the English textbooks for Iranian second grade students in senior high school, Vision 2. To this end, the extent to which the textbooks materials satisfy the prescribed curriculum was explored based on Littlejohn’s (2011) evaluative framework. Employing stratified random sampling, a total of 12 private and public senior high schools (six girl students and six boy students) were selected randomly among all the schools located in the six education districts in Isfahan. To select the teacher participants, a convenience sampling method was employed and those who agreed to be surveyed took part in the study. The 20 teachers who participated in this study have been teaching Vision 2 since the beginning of 2017 fall. The process of the content analysis deals with a deeply analytical content evaluation based on a framework containing different parts (objective description analysis, subjective analysis, subjective inference) done by a teacher committee. The results revealed that there is a need to adapt the materials to the target situation of use. Such adaptation needs to cover both design- and publication-oriented aspects of the materials. As a practical implication, the findings may urge the developers of the textbooks to launch a modification project relying upon the results of the systematic phase, therefore, it may enrich English teaching and learning material in Iranian high schools.
Implementation of Hybrid and Pure Problem-based Learning in EFL Context: The case of speaking skill and self-confidence of Iranian undergraduate participants
منبع: Iinternational Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۹, Issue ۳۵, Spring ۲۰۲۱ (۲) 81 - 94
Problem-based Learning (PBL) as one of the newest teaching methods in the area of language teaching in second and foreign contexts, has been used by teachers in the last two decades in different institutes. In the current study, attempts were made to find out the effect of the two PBL subcategories, i.e. Hybrid Problem-based Learning (H-PBL) and Pure Problem-based Learning (PPBL) in comparison to a traditional lecture-based method, on Iranian EFL university learners’ speaking skill and their self-confidence, by implementing these two methods in the EFL classroom using eight teacher-made real-world problems. To this purpose, 56 undergraduate participants of Payam Noor university (PNU) in Abadan, Iran, were randomly selected, divided into a control group and two treatment HPBL and PPBL groups. The statistical analysis of the obtained results of the participants’ pretest-posttest scores, through one-way ANCOVA and Man-Whitney U test, revealed that the treatment groups outperformed the control group in speaking skill and self-confidence The findings of the study might bear implications for teachers and university curriculum designers to take more proper approaches towards the instructing university participants.
The Effects of Explicit vs. Implicit Instruction on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Acquisition of English Definite and Indefinite Articles
منبع: Iinternational Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۹, Issue ۳۵, Spring ۲۰۲۱ (۲) 141 - 155
The present study aims at investigating the differential effects of two types of instruction (explicit versus implicit) on the learning of English articles by Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this aim, 90 intermediate undergraduate students at Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, whose major was English Translation were selected for the experiment. Then, they were divided into three groups namely, explicit group (EG), implicit group (IG), and control group (CG). The EG received instruction on English articles through two popular grammar books-- namely ‘Essential Grammar in Use’ by Murphy (1998) and ‘Oxford Practice Grammar’ by Eastwood (1999). The second group received instruction on English articles by employing the technique of textual input enhancement. The third group received similar instruction like IG except that English articles were not enhanced for this group. After analyzing the data on pre- and posttests, the results showed that the three groups of EG, IG, and CG improved significantly from pretest to posttests. Moreover, on the posttest, the EG learners significantly outweighed the IG learners, who were in turn found to be significantly better than their counterparts in the CG. The results of this study have several important implications for the classroom practice concerning the controversial issue of teaching English articles.
Iranian EFL Learners’ and Teachers’ Attitudes Towards High School English Textbooks(مقاله پژوهشی دانشگاه آزاد)
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۴, No.۲۸, Spring & Summer ۲۰۲۱ 221 - 244
The current study aimed to evaluate the content of the English textbooks taught in Iranian senior high schools. To this purpose, the study relied upon a descriptive survey design. Through a stratified random sampling, a total of 12 senior high schools were selected from the high schools located in Isfahan. To select the teacher participants, a convenience sampling method was employed. Then, a structured questionnaire was administered to the selected teachers and students. The obtained data were statistically analyzed and item analysis revealed that the accessibility and affordability of the textbooks were the most-favored features. However, most of the students wondered whether the textbooks were equipped with supplementary (online and offline) materials. The post-hoc analysis results revealed the significant overall teacher-student disagreement towards the textbooks. Generally, the results showed that there is a need to adapt the teaching materials to the target situation of use. As a practical implication, the findings may urge the developers of the textbooks to launch a modification project in order to get more conscious in developing future textbooks. Moreover, the findings are of use for the teachers of the textbooks as well as the pedagogical policy makers.
Level of Grammatical Proficiency and Acquisition of Functional Projections: The case of Iranian learners of English language
منبع: Iinternational Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۹, Issue ۳۴, Spring ۲۰۲۱ (۱) 25 - 39
Unlike Lexical Projections, Functional Projections (Extended Projections) are more of an ‘abstract’ in nature. Therefore, Functional Projections seem to be acquired later than Lexical Projections by the L2 learners. The present study investigates Iranian L2 learners’ acquisition of English Extended Projections taking into account their level of grammatical proficiency. Specifically, the aim is to identify the level of grammatical proficiency at which the acquisition of Extended Projections could occur in the process of learning English by the Iranian students. Two hundred and seventy Iranian female L2 learners of English participated in this study. Participants were administered three tests with a ten-day interval between each test. First, an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) was used to classify the participants’ level of grammatical proficiency. Second, a Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT) was administered in order to assess the learners’ ability to recognize grammatical problems in Extended Projections. Finally, a picture description task (PDT) was administered to examine the learners’ ability to produce grammatical Extended Projections. The results indicated that the learners are able to recognize and produce English Extended Projections even at lower levels of grammatical proficiency. The results also showed that the learner’s recognition and production of English Extended Projection improves with their increased level of grammatical proficiency.
Collaborative Writing Practice through Online Learning: Insights from Iranian EFL Learners’ Perceptions
منبع: Iinternational Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۸, Issue ۲۹, Spring ۲۰۲۰ 165-184
This study investigates the benefits of e-collaborative and collaborative writing tasks on the perception of Iranian EFL learners in a process-oriented approach. The study involved 74 intermediate Iranian EFL students at Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch. They were divided into three groups by random assignment as two experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups were required to perform their tasks in collaboration; only one of these two groups had access to the Telegram Application outside the classroom. The control group, however, followed the conventional method of learning how to write. The participants were required to write two journals during the course. They were asked to write about their understanding, attitude, and experience on the writing activity. There were 136 diary entries to be analyzed in order to discover the themes in them. These themes were literally the emerging concepts in the diary entries related to research question of the study about the participants’ perception. After the identification of these dominant themes, content analysis was performed to interpret the data. According to the results of the study, a high percentage of students’ satisfaction showed positive perceptions of e-collaborative activities, and they reported that the instructional implementation of an e-collaborative writing project with a five-stage writing process did assist EFL learners to accomplish a collaborative writing task.
Structural priming as implicit learning: evidence from EFL learners' production of the relative clause structure(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study focused on the pedagogical application of priming in an EFL context. Structural priming refers to the speakers’ tendency to produce the structure they encountered in recent discourse in subsequent production compared to an alternative form. Given the limited number of studies in the literature with a focus on the application of priming in L2 teaching and the problems that L2 learners face during speech production, the present study aimed at investigating whether the implication of priming leads to a more frequent oral and written production of the relative clause (RC) structure compared to adjectival modification of nouns (AN) in long- and short-terms as an instance of implicit learning. Participants consisted of 60 EFL female L2 learners, aged between 18-25 years old. Two experimental and 1 control groups were defined and 20 participants were allocated to each group. By applying a pretest, a treatment, an immediate posttest, a delayed posttest design, a picture description task, and a grammaticality judgment test (GJT), the data were gathered. Results of the descriptive and inferential analyses revealed that the implication of priming led to an improvement in the rate of the RC construction when the participants were involved in the written production of the L2, as compared to oral modality. Results are discussed based on structural complexity and procedures involved in L2 production. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are considered, too.
Pros and Cons of Dancing in the Dark: Enhancing EFL learners' oral proficiency in an unplugged learning community
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۸, Issue ۳۱, Summer ۲۰۲۰ 75-97
Recent thrust of research has focused on non-conventional classrooms for teaching to EFL learners. Amongst the newly developed models, Unplugged Classroom Model (UCM) is the most debated one as textbooks are aside and the syllabus is based on conversation-driven activities. This study sought to determine the pros and cons of unplugged teaching for enhancing EFL learners' oral proficiency. From a pool of 317 intermediate and upper-intermediate Iranian EFL learners, 120 intermediate and upper-intermediate learners (60 each) were selected based on SPEAK NOW 1-4 Interview Placement Exam and were divided into conventional and non-conventional classrooms at each proficiency level. The participants in the non-conventional classrooms received unplugged instruction; whereas, their counterparts in the control group (conventional) classrooms were taught according to their textbook's instruction. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to measure learners' performances before and after instruction through paper-based exams and interviews. Participants' perspectives and viewpoints in the non-conventional classrooms were analyzed using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) questionnaire and the instructor's observations, respectively. The findings revealed that not only did the UCM participants enjoy collaborative learning but also enhanced their learning ability to produce more orally proficient utterances and to expand their gained knowledge in order to scaffold their classmates' conversation.
From Importer of Knowledge to Researcher of the Self: Exploring the Utility of Collaborative Action Research in Distance Second Language Professional Development
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۸, Issue ۳۲, Autumn ۲۰۲۰ 63-78
Teacher professional development, as a burgeoning term, has attracted a surge of interest in English language teaching. In second language (L2) professional development, the common orthodoxy has been one which considers teachers as that of knowledge consumers. It is commonly argued that top-down approaches to teachers’ professional development has done little to maximize teachers’ professionalism. To unravel the above-mentioned dilemma, this study was an attempt to implement collaborative action research, as a viable means, to boost teachers’ professional development in a networked community of shared knowledge. To this end, thirteen male and female Iranian English teachers, within the age range of 22-35, were selected through convenience sampling. The selected participants were added to a group in WhatsApp. The online classes began with plenary debate, mostly in the form of workshops through problematizing a particular topic, which were directly linked to teachers’ actual teaching experience. Insights into the EFL teachers’ professional development were acquired through the triangulation of data from four main sources (i.e., teachers’ professional journals, reflective journals, action research projects, and semi-structured interviews). The findings revealed that engaging EFL teachers in a collaborative dialogue in a networked community of shared knowledge ultimately culminated in development of action research projects which resulted in sustained L2 professional development, whereby participating teachers developed a broader understanding of research and adopted reflective inquiry in their L2 teaching practices. The findings have important implications for language teachers in general, and EFL teachers, syllabus designers, and material developers, in particular.
Relationship between Iranian EFL High School Students’ Knowledge of Universal Grammar and their Performance on Standardized General English Proficiency Tests
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۷, Issue ۲۸, Winter ۲۰۱۹ 57-73
This study investigated the relationship between Iranian high school students’ Universal Grammar knowledge and their performance on such standardized general English proficiency tests as PET and FCE internationally administered by Cambridge University. To this end, 108 students were randomly chosen from some high schools located in Malayer from Hamedan. Since this study was correlational in nature, and descriptive and hypothesis-testing by definition, the research participants were given no treatment. Three tests were administered to them instead. To measure UG knowledge, a researcher-made UG test was given to all participants. This test which was made both reliable and valid included pied-piping and preposition stranding principle, binding principle, pro-drop parameter, that-trace effect, projection principle, resumptive pronoun and subjacency principle. To assess the participants’ general English proficiency, PET and FCE tests were run. All participants took the three tests consecutively at two-week intervals after they were given clear and detailed instructions. The findings were manifold. Firstly, there was a significant relationship between UG knowledge and performance on the proficiency tests. Secondly, there existed no significant difference between the proficiency tests as far as the UG test was concerned. Finally, the UG test scores were, through the Cubic regression model, proved to predict the scores gained on both proficiency tests. Most importantly, this study led to some suggestions regarding the learner variables and the under-explored issue of integration of generative SLA and language testing, more specifically standardized general English proficiency tests.
منبع: Applied Research on English Language, V. ۸ , N. ۱ , ۲۰۱۹ 139 - 164
In an effort to examine EFL students’ and teachers’ perceptions about the role of implementing flipped teaching in the university context, a mixed-method research approach was employed. To this end, 80 male and female Iranian advanced EFL learners majoring in English translation, literature, and English teaching and 204 Iranian EFL instructors were selected. They answered the flipped teaching questionnaires, then ten percent of the participants (8 students and 20 teachers) volunteered for follow-up qualitative data collection procedures (i.e., the interview) to let the researchers produce more profound responses to the related concepts of the study. Then, the data collected from the questionnaires were coded and analyzed. Also, the qualitative analysis of the research was done using the interview transcripts to support the quantitative analysis results of the research. It included content analysis requiring the examination of the participations' interviews transcripts. The findings of the quantitative part revealed that a majority of students held positive perceptions about engagement, effectiveness, attitudes, and positive affect through flipped instruction constructs in the flipped teaching class. University instructors also had an inclination towards implementing flipped teaching on the whole for the constructs named language improvement, attitudes about flipped instruction, better education through flipped instruction, and difficulty of implementing flipped instruction. The qualitative investigation confirmed the previously-stated results to a great extent in that the EFL students and instructors generally preferred employing flipped teaching and they had positive perceptions about the role of this approach.
Effects of CALL-Mediated TBLT on Self-Efficacy for Reading among Iranian University Non-English Major EFL Students
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۷, Issue ۲۶, Summer ۲۰۱۹ 85-101
The rich and still expanding literature on TBLT is helping to mature both its theoretical conceptualization and practical implementation in foreign and second language education. Similarly, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has grown as a field, with the use and integration of technology in the classroom continuing to increase and will continue to play an important role in this maturation process. The present study, hence, reports on an empirical study that investigated the effects of CALL-mediated TBLT on the perceived self- efficacy of Iranian university non-English major EFL students. Through non-probability and convenience sampling, two intact freshmen classes were chosen and randomly assigned as the experimental and the control group. During the treatment sessions, the students in the experimental group received instruction in a CALL-mediated TBLT format, while the control group received no CALL-mediated TBLT instruction but underwent only a task- based instruction on reading without the mediation of CALL. A univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was run, while controlling for pre-intervention scores as the covariate. A significant effect was found for CALL-mediated TBLT (F = 81.450, p = .000, partial eta squared =.504), suggesting CALL-mediated TBLT had a positive effect on the self-efficacy perceptions of the students in the experimental group .
مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: یادگیری بندِ نسبی در زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبانِ سوم (Learning of relative clauses by L3 learners of English)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
در حیطه ی فراگیری زبان سوم٬ نتایج متناقض تحقیقات نشان می دهد که در میان محققان در مورد مزایا و یا معایب دو زبانگی در فراگیری زبان سوم اجماعی وجود ندارد. بنابراین دغدغه ی اصلی مطالعه حاضر بررسی تفاوت های احتمالی بین دوزبانه ها و تک زبانه ها در خصوص دانش دستور می باشد. این تحقیق تلاشی بود برای بررسی اینکه آیا زبان آموزان تک زبانه فارسی و دوزبانه فارسی- آذری در یادگیری بند نسبی زبان انگلیسی تفاوت معنی داری دارند. برای انجام این مطالعه، در مجموع دویست دانش آموز دختر در حال تحصیل در کلاس دوم دبیرستان به طور تصادفی از دو ناحیه ی آموزش و پرورش شهرهای تبریز و شیراز در ایران انتخاب شدند. تمامی شرکت کننده ها از نظر سطح زبان انگلیسی، جنسیت، و سن همگن بودند. یک آزمون استاندارد تعیین سطح زبان انگلیسی، یک پرسشنامه و دو تکلیفِ ساختارِ نحوی در هر دو گروه اجرا شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که تفاوت معنی داری بین زبان آموزان در ارتباط با بند نسبیِ انگلیسی وجود دارد. در نهایت، کاربردهای این پژوهش برای کسانیکه در امر یادگیری و آموزش زبان انگلیسی فعالیت دارند مورد بحث قرار گرفت.
هدف این تحقیق بررسی مشکلات یاددهی و یادگیری درس زبان انگلیسی دانش آموزان دوره متوسطه شهر اصفهان بود. سؤالات تحقیق با توجه به عوامل واژگان زبان فارسی، نظام آوایی زبان فارسی، دستور زبان فارسی، عوامل آموزشی، فردی و فرهنگی و اجتماعی مشکلات یاددهی ـ یادگیری درس زبان انگلیسی مطرح شده است. این تحقیق چون به بررسی مشکلات یاددهی و یادگیری درس زبان انگلیسی دانش آموزان دوره متوسطه می پردازد، توصیفی ـ پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه دبیران شهر اصفهان 398 نفر است که براساس روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ای ساده 105 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردید. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها پرسشنامه محقق ساخته مشکلات یاددهی و یادگیری زبان انگلیسی با 44 سؤال بسته پاسخ برحسب طیف پنج درجه ای لیکرت بود که روایی آن به صورت صوری و محتوایی مورد تایید استادان با تجربه و متخصص در این زمینه قرار گرفت و پایایی آن از طریق ضریب آلفای کرانباخ 89/0 محاسبه گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در دو سطح توصیفی (فراوانی، درصد و میانگین) و استنباطی (آزمون t) با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SPSS صورت گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد نقش عوامل فرهنگی ـ اجتماعی، فردی و آموزشی بیش از سطح متوسط است و عوامل نظام آوایی، واژگان زبان فارسی و دستور زبان فارسی تاثیر چندانی در مشکلات یاددهی ـ یادگیری درس زبان انگلیسی در دوره متوسطه نداشته است. همچنین براساس یافته ها تفاوت معناداری بین نظرات دبیران در خصوص مشکلات یاددهی ـ یادگیری زبان انگلیسی برحسب مدرک تحصیلی و سابقه خدمت وجود ندارد، اما این تفاوت برحسب جنسیت در خصوص عوامل فردی معنادار بود.