Speaking is one of the most important skills to be developed and enhanced as means of effective communication. Speaking skill is regarded one of the most difficult aspects of language learning. Many language learners find it difficult to express themselves in spoken language. They are generally facing problems to use the foreign language to express their thoughts effectively. They stop talking because they face psychological obstacles or cannot find the suitable words and expressions. The modern world of media and mass communication requires good knowledge of spoken English. This paper aims at establishing the need to focus on the factors affecting on language learners’ English speaking skill. This review paper traces out the body of research concerning the term speaking, the importance of speaking, characteristics of speaking performance, speaking problems, and factors affecting speaking performance. According to the review of literature, appropriate speaking instruction was found to be the learners’ priority and a field in which they need more attention. This study can be useful to teachers and researchers to consider their language learners’ speaking needs in English language teaching and learning context.
سیده معصومه احمدی
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نویسنده: سیده معصومه احمدی
Many studies in language learning have indicated that listening comprehension plays an important role in the learning process. In spite of its importance, listening has been ignored in second language learning, research, and teaching. The purpose of the present article is to define the terms listening and listening comprehension, review the components of listening, explain teachers’ role in listening comprehension, and present the general principles of listening comprehension. The literature review demonstrated that learners’ listening comprehension skill can be improved by teachers’ assistance and the use of appropriate learning materials and activities.