In the 21st century, the meaning of places is essential to people. Meanings have gained symbolic importance through tourism heritage. Tourism is a powerful force in shaping the world and our understanding of different cultures, people, and places. This research investigates the complexities of religious tourism and the management of religious destinations. It obtains criteria for managing religious goals with a detailed look and uses the descriptive-analytical method based on library documents and the opinion of research experts. Then, using research experts and ISM-PLS hybrid approach, a three-level framework for managing religious goals in Yazd city has been presented and analyzed. The results showed that the government's decisions and actions were the most effective criteria. The ultimate goal was to create a sense of trust and security among religious tourists. It is hoped that the findings of this research will be a starting point for managing religious tourism destinations and a guide for examining the complexities of Islamic tourism destinations and their management.
Identifying and Explaining the Effective Components of Sports Tourism in the Sublimity of Culture and Sportsmanship(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Sports tourism is one of the most attractive types of tourism that occurs in different regions and countries. This tourism type is effective in economic fields and extremely significant in cultural and sportsmanship contexts. To this end, the current research aimed to identify and explain the effective components of sport tourism in the sublimity of culture and sportsmanship, conducted through a mixed method. This research approach was sequential exploratory in two qualitative-quantitative phases, in which “thematic analysis” and “survey” methods were used, respectively. The first phase’s statistical population included experts in sport tourism, sport management, culture management, and sportsmanship, with 14 individuals participating in semi-structured interviews using a purposive sampling method. After determining the effective actors in this field, 32 experts responded to questionnaires using a systematic sampling method in the study’s second phase. According to the research findings of the first phase, the themes extracted from the semi-structured interviews comprised 39 fundamental themes, 15 organizing themes, and four global themes. Per the second phase of the study’s findings, all themes were approved by the experts, all determinants of the role of sport tourism in the sublimity of sports culture and sportsmanship. As a result, sports tourism, while creating macroeconomic benefits for residents and visitors, significantly contributes to the sublimity of sports culture and sportsmanship, where this category can strengthen the value and ethical attitudes in addition to creating recreational experiences
Designing an Experience-Based Tourism Model for Creative Cultural Attractions (Case Study: Tehran City)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study aimed to create an experience-based tourism model for creative cultural attractions. This research is mixed in terms of methodology. In the qualitative part, the qualitative content analysis method was used. The statistical population for this part was experts who were selected by the snowball sampling method. The structural equation method was used in the quantitative part. The second statistical population included visitors to Tehran's creative cultural attractions; 384 samples were selected by random sampling. The model was designed based on the research results. The desired model consists of three parts before the visit, during the visit, and after the visit. Before the visit, the individual characteristics, image, motivation, and visitors’ expectations directly impacted the creative experience. During the visit, the creative experience directly impacted the experiencescape and the memorable experience process, and the experiencescape affected visitors’ memorable experience process directly. After the visit, the visitor's memorable experiences directly influenced satisfaction and lasting memories. This study's findings lead to creating creative experiences for visitors and developing creative cultural attractions. The tourism industry policymakers can rank creative cultural attractions by setting up a registration system for them, awarding creative certificates to prominent attractions, and providing them with the basis of progress
The Effect of Spiritual Experience During The Covid-19 Virus Pandemic On Tourists' Behavioral Goals Through Attitudes of Mental Norms and Risk (Case Study: Shiraz)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study is a structural equation modeling study. It has investigated the effect of literary tourism during the Covid-19 virus pandemic on tourists' behavioral goals through the attitude of mental norms. The present study is a one-section survey. The statistical population of this study includes all tourists who visited the cultural and spiritual sites of Shiraz, like Hafez and Saadi tombs. Literary tourism is a concept that praises the culture and heritage of a destination. The concept is to go to locations worldwide highlighted in some non/fictional novels. They can fascinate new tourists, increase the number of domestic travelers, and promote tourism destinations. Because the sample size is unknown through Cochran's formula with a 95% confidence level, 384 people were selected by the available sampling method. They answered the questionnaire about the effect of literary tourism during the Covid-19 virus pandemic on tourists' behavioral goals. The collected data were analyzed by using Amos software and SPSS. Confirmatory factor analysis, the reliability and validity of the contract measurement model, Cronbach's alpha results (above 0.7), and composite reliability (greater than 0.7) for the reliability and mean of the extracted variance (greater than 0.5) were confirmed. The structural equation model was used to test research hypotheses and the relationships between research variables (spiritual factors, behavioral purpose). The results showed that spiritual variables, in general, have a positive effect on the behavioral goal of tourists through the attitude of tourists' mental norms. This attitude was also recognized as a significant mediator between spiritual perception and behavioral goals. The findings of this study indicate that literary tourism has a positive, significant effect on increasing re-visit tourism destinations through attitude, mental norms, and perceived behavioral control.
Identifying the Dimensions of Pilgrims' Experience (The Case of Arba'een Pilgrims)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Most existing research on pilgrims and religious tourists has focused on their motivation, with limited attention to their actual experiences. This knowledge gap is particularly apparent in the Islamic context, where understanding the experiences of pilgrims and religious tourists is crucial for predicting their future behaviors. This paper aims to identify the key dimensions of pilgrims' and religious tourists' experiences during the Arba'een pilgrimage. To achieve this objective, a thorough review of the relevant literature was conducted, and appropriate questions were developed and refined through consultation with experts in the field. The target population for this study consisted of Iranian pilgrims who participated in the Arba'een pilgrimage. The researchers utilized a convenience sampling method to collect 229 completed questionnaires, which were then analyzed using exploratory factor analysis in SPSS software. Through this analysis, the researchers identified six key dimensions that contributed to the experience of Arba'een pilgrims: spiritual and emotional, cognitive, interactive, pleasant, physical-bodily, and learning. This research suggests that while the primary motivation for pilgrims is a spiritual experience, other types of experiences can also enhance their overall pilgrimage experience. These findings have practical implications for destination managers, as they can use them to design various experiences that cater to the needs and preferences of different types of pilgrims.
The Effect of Nostalgia on the Pull Motivation of Tourist Destinations, Amazing Behavior and Loyalty Among Tourists (Case Study: Kashan Rosewater Cultural Festival)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Nowadays, customer satisfaction is regarded as a strategic and influential factor for the success of various businesses. On the other hand, tourism, the world's largest and most diverse industry, is also a significant source of income and job creation for many countries. Therefore, the present study examines the effect of nostalgia, experiential marketing, and experiential values as relatively novel concepts on satisfaction in the tourism industry. In light of the COVID-19 outbreak, the research population includes all tourists who have previously visited the Kashan Rosewater Festival. Furthermore, since the population size is uncertain, it is assumed unlimited. A convenience sampling method was used to select sample members from the population. Methodologically, it is a descriptive survey study based on the subject matter under investigation. It is also a correlational study. A partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to analyze the questionnaire results. Based on our findings, nostalgia affects pull motivation, patronage behavior, and future travel intention. However, pull motivation does not influence travel intentions.
Economic Sharing Based “Tri Hita Karana” as A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of Spiritual Tourism in Bali(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Bali tourism faced conflict with the local community because of the utilization and commodification of sacred and forest areas. The first sacred area conflict occurred in 1994, based on the use of the sacred land “Tanah Lot” become tourists resort namely Bali Nirvana Resort (BNR). Furthermore, this problem is presently observed in the utilization of mangrove forests for the international airport and LNG (liquefied natural gas) terminals, respectively. In these conflicts, all facilities are designed to support the increase in the inbound tourist visits and foreign investment. This growth of Bali tourism threatens the development of sustainable tourism, which concerned with environment, local communities and local economy, but spiritual tourism creates the conflict subsided due to the dependence of spiritual tourism on sacred areas, the environment, and local community resources. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of spiritual tourism in building sustainable economy based on the local wisdom of Bali Tri Hita Karana. Data were qualitatively analyzed and obtained from literature reviews, observations, and in-depth interviews. The results showed that spiritual tourism emphasized sacred areas, the surrounding natural environment, and local community assets. This dependence developed a mutually beneficial relationship, subsequently leading to the CSR of Spiritual Tourism. The CSR based on the local wisdom Tri Hita Karana which create harmonious between the local people, environment, and investment.
Identifying and Prioritizing Spiritual Health Factors Effective on Tourism Stakeholders’ Resilience(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Stakeholders of the tourism industry are facing crises with many stress factors. Resilience is one of the most essential human abilities in critical situations. To improve the resilience of the stakeholders of the tourism industry, paying attention to spiritual health is very important. Spiritual health is a fundamental factor in the resilience of tourism industry stakeholders. This study aims to present a model of identifying and prioritizing the effective factors in spiritual health on the resilience of tourism stakeholders. For this purpose, information was collected through an in-depth study of the subject literature, and an in-depth interview with 15 experts in the field of tourism who are familiar with tourism, spirituality, and culture, and coding was done with the exploratory approach of thematic analysis and using ATLAS-ti software. And finally, 28 indicators and six components were extracted. Then, in the next stage, the research components were implemented by 15 research experts using the questionnaire and interpretive-structural modeling (ISM) method, and using MATLAB software, the position, importance, and effectiveness of the extracted research components were presented at six levels. The results of this research state that the element of spiritual structure in tourism has the most impact and is the cornerstone of spiritual health in the resilience of the Stakeholders of the tourism industry, and the component of spiritual perception of the tourism stakeholders has the most effectiveness.
Tour guides are considered as one of the key players within the tourism supply chain, serving as direct interfaces with visitors and acting as cultural mediators between diverse cultures. They exert a significant influence on tourists' intentions for repeat visits. Nowadays, tourists are not merely seeking basic information from guides, as they can easily access such information online. Instead, they are in search of creative, authentic, interactive experiences with participatory learning, demanding the presence of creativity in tour guides. Consequently, guides need to demonstrate new forms of creativity in their performance. Creativity is a pivotal aspect for achieving professional success in the realm of tour guiding. The depth of their professional knowledge and their creative abilities significantly impact the quality of tours and the portrayal of destinations. As cultural intelligence is one of the critical dimensions of creativity, this research aims to explore the relationship between cultural intelligence and the creativity of tour guides. Using a library review method, it examines the role of cultural intelligence, its dimensions, and indicators. Ultimately, it presents a conceptual framework for fostering the creativity of tour guides, grounded in the principles of cultural intelligence.
Presenting a Model for Explaining the Role of Virtual Media in Promoting Sustainable Intercultural Communication Management in the Tourism Industry (Case Study: Iran & Oman)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This paper proposes a model for managing sustainable intercultural communication in the tourism industry of Iran and Oman, with a focus on the role of media. The study employed the grounded theory method and paradigm model, using in-depth literature review, background analysis, and interviews with relevant experts to answer research questions. The coding process involved open, central, and selective coding techniques. The model identifies the need for a combination of Bourdieu's capitals to achieve sustainable management of intercultural communication through the media, and emphasizes the importance of accepting globalization as a platform for positive changes in tourism. The model also highlights the need for institutionalizing the role of the media in sustainable intercultural communication, and developing the concept of tourism as hot and cool media. Other key factors include the development of regulations in proportion to contemporary world requirements, training of managers and citizens, and the need for stable intercultural relations. The model proposes action strategies such as extensively using media to develop regular intercultural ties, and the application of technology as a tool for sustainable development of tourism and social media. The proposed model explains the role of virtual media in improving sustainable intercultural communication management in the tourism industry, and could aid in optimal employment of virtual media in this field.
Investigating the Relationships Between the Effective Factors in Creating Food Tourism Brands in Shiraz(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The current research mainly aims to investigate the effective factors in creating a food tourism brand in Shiraz. The statistical population includes all experts in the field of tourism and hotel management, food, cooking, and restaurant industry, and tourists, who were selected using the purposeful sampling method. First, 13 factors were identified according to research literature. The identified factors were given to 10 selected experts who were aware of the desired criteria. Then, the relationships between these factors were determined using the fuzzy Dematel method, and the answer to the second question was also determined. The results showed that the factor of investment in the field of food tourism, and using new advertising tools in this field are the most important thing in creating a food tourism brand in Shiraz. The parameters of food quality and food authenticity are the most effective in this area. In addition, creating a good feeling towards the brand and advertising, in this field are among the most effective parameters, respectively. Food tourism branding issue is the most important issues that should be considered in Shiraz. In this regard, it is possible to identify the foods of Shiraz as intangible cultural heritage, bring them to the national register, prepare their files for global registration in UNESCO, and conduct cultural and political consultations so that the files should be presented at the international level.