International journal of Tourism, Culture and Spirituality

International journal of Tourism, Culture and Spirituality

International journal of Tourism, Culture and Spirituality, Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2017 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Spiritual awakening leading to a search for meaning through travel(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Spiritual awakening Transformation Meaning Search

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۶۲
Arguably, all people are spiritual. We will, at different stages, seek meaning and connection, and seek transcendence through self-improvement. Often, this personal quest will begin or resume, or be addressed more fervently after a personal event that leads to an awakening of one’s spirituality. This paper considers how transformative life experiences lead people to engage their spiritual side, and specifically how they may seek to do so through their experience of travel. Through 18 months of in-depth phenomenological data collection, this paper analyses the personal narratives of 11 tourists who experienced volunteer tourism after experiencing life events that facilitated a spiritual awakening. This paper finds that experiences such as the death of a close family member, the facing of mortality, or existential crisis can lead to a motivation to travel, and that travel can be deeply spiritual. It posits the question: In the year 2017, with great global and personal uncertainty, is the desire for spiritual growth through travel becoming more mainstream and urgent?

Futures studies of Tourism with a Spirituality Perspective(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Tourism spirituality Futures Studies Delphi Technique

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Supposing that today’s growing range of human needs with the increasing growth of technology is not only limited to material dimensions but non-material aspects are of an undeniable role in the human self-actualization. In this regard, the concept of spirituality dramatically manifests itself in different aspects of human life, even though the technological evolutions and tourism can be an important lever in this area. In this study, using content analysis techniques and using ideas of experts, we assessed the components of ‘styling the future’, ‘tourism’, and ‘spirituality’ comparing elements of these variables such that the relationship between tourism and spirituality was extracted in the form of ‘a sense of excellence’, ‘a sense of meaning’, ‘human values’ and ‘interaction with existence’. Also, the relationship between tourism and futures studies (futurology) was defined using the extracted parameters including ‘consultation prior to social and cultural reforms’, ‘future analysis and alert against challenges’, and ‘determining strategic priorities’. Eventually, in relation to these three components, the obtained results emphasized the need for taking the advantage of spirituality in the study of the tourism industry.

In Search of a Common Experience: Comparative study on Tourists' Spiritual Experiences in Relation to the Various Types of Tourism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Tourism spirituality spiritual experiences McKercher’s Typology

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۸
The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of spirituality in various types of tourism, and to test the hypothesis of the existence of common spiritual experiences among all types of tourists. McKercher's typology of cultural tourists and Norman's (2012) typology of tourists' spiritual experiences were applied to classify various groups of spiritual tourists participating in each type of tourism activity. The study population consisted of all individuals who have travelled with the purpose of pilgrimage, recreation, visiting cultural historical attractions, business, visiting religious sites, or participating in ecotourism and nature-based tourism. Sampling was done based on the convenience method according to the size and nature of the target population. Finally, it was concluded that most pilgrims and visitors to the religious sites were purposeful and sightseeing spiritual tourists with a deep intention to search for spiritual growth. Also, among nature-based tourists, ecotourists, business and recreational tourists, and those who had traveled to visit cultural and historical sites, a considerable number were Casual, Incidental and Serendipitous Spiritual Tourists, whilst only a small proportion had purposefully travelled for spiritual growth. Nevertheless, the research indicates the existence of at least one powerful element of spirituality in all types of tourism. 

The Eye of Insight and Spiritual Tourism in Islamic Mysticism and Eastern Philosophy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: religious tourism Spiritual tourism The Eye of Insight Third eye Islamic mysticism Philosophy of the East

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Religious tourism is a kind of tourism that nowadays is defined by the elements of the spiritual motivation of the tourists rather than the destination of this tourism. This paper aims to introduce The Eye of Insight Islamic mysticism and Third Eye in the philosophy of the East and to investigate the importance of opening these eyes in creating the sense of spirituality for the tourists. Results showed that both in Islamic mysticism and in the philosophy of the East, human perfection has been depicted as a journey from material world to the world of meaning. In this regard, seekers are recommended to open eyes of their hearts in order to contemplate on nature and explore the meaning hidden in it. Relying on such an approach helps the tourists correct their attitudes toward nature based on this ideology and is effective in the individual and ethical perfection of the tourists. It has also abundant effects in collective and global scale since it can prevent the negative effects of the view that considers nature as a means for enjoyment and consumption which is frequently seen in mass tourism. This approach is also useful in sustainable tourism and protection of natural resources.

Tourism: a Tool for Spirituality Development(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Tourism spirituality spiritual development

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۷۲
Tourism development is considered an important tool in promoting economic growth, alleviating poverty, and advancing spirituality development. This paper aims to review the relationship between tourism and spirituality and to explain how tourism development could contribute to spirituality development goals. The paper provides an analysis of the relationship between tourism and spirituality development. It explores definitions and constructs of spirituality and reviews experiences and practices in relation to spiritual resources. However, by looking at a brief history of human intelligence we learned that there is a low agreement today upon the spirituality definition. In order to reach a broad agreement, the paper was divided into two sections. The first section explains the importance of tourism and spirituality as components of life success while the second section discusses some important issues regarding the development of spirituality through tourism activities by presenting a model that provides clarification, definition, and relations to the terms of faith, spirituality, religion and tourism. The model can serve as a means to begin the dialogue needed to increase understanding of this important concept. The paper also suggests that the ability to effectively develop tourism can strongly and positively influence spiritual principles and practices.

The Role of Paradigmatic Approach in Conceptualizing Interdisciplinary Studies on Spiritual Tourism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Spiritual tourism Pragmatic Conceptualization Paradigms’ Philosophical Principles Pragmatism Paradigm

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تعداد بازدید : ۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۶
Comprehensive and reliable conceptual definition of concepts can be considered as the first step toward managing the phenomena based on those concepts. Spiritual tourism is a multidimensional phenomenon with different mixed concepts such as spiritual experience, spiritual tourist, achieving spirituality through tourism, deepening and institutionalizing spirituality perception (experience), training and learning spirituality (spiritual experiences), development planning, spiritual tourism economics, and spiritual tourism marketing. The mentioned concepts are formed in dialectical models that are influenced by disciplines such as geography, history, economics, management, religion, and mysticism. Regardless of the level and the type of combination of concepts, the definition of these concepts may be different in various paradigms due to the differences in assumptions, ontology, epistemology and methodology of different paradigms. Such a different even makes the spiritual tourism’s definition process more difficult. Spiritual tourism has already common definitions in literature that are not formally classified based on various paradigms’ assumptions; and have not been specified by the tourists under which paradigm that they are formed. Therefore, in this paper, the concept of spiritual tourism is reviewed from the perspective of different paradigms such as positivism, critical romanticism, post-modernism, critical realism, and pragmatism and new definitions are extracted. Based on the results of this article, the passage from abstract concepts to operational concepts in the field of spiritual tourism has been smoother. Besides, a more sustainable vision has been created about how to create and disseminate knowledge in the field of spiritual tourism. Hence, the main aim and contribution of this article is to extract the different conceptual definitions of spiritual tourism in different paradigms, in order to provide a reliable paradigm conceptual definition of tourism spiritual. The present paper concluded that a reliable and comprehensive definition of spiritual tourism can be provided in Pragmatism Paradigm framework.  This pragmatic definition can be used as a base for future planning, management, marketing, and other operational and administrative applications.