International Economic Studies

International Economic Studies

International Economics Studies, 50, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2020 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Females’ Labor Force Participation: A Case of Some Cities of Pakistan(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: gender inequality Education Socio-economic Profile Pseudo Panel Urbanizing Areas Females’ labor force participation

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۱
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of gender inequality in education on females’ labor force participation in 14 major cities (rapidly urbanizing areas) of Pakistan after taking into account the socio-economic indicators like the marital status of female, the gender of the head of household, physical facilities, the median income of the household, etc. Data were gathered from the Pakistan Social Standard of Living Measurement Survey from 2004-05 to 2011-12. Pseudo Panel technique was applied using cities and females in the age group 15-65 as cohorts. Graphical representation and fixed effect techniques were used for analyzing the issue. On the basis of the results, the study recommends some policies such as education facilities, especially, technical, vocational, and job-oriented education should be provided to the females on an equal basis.  Females should be given equal opportunities as males, there should be laws to eliminate wage differential. Women’s participation in the manufacturing and trade sectors should be encouraged.  Moreover, facilities for married women such as day-care centers should be increased. JEL Classification: I32, I24, J16, Z130, J21
۲.

The Effects of Corporate Governance on Banks’ Performance (Evidence from of Indian Banks)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Corporate Governance Bank Performance Indian Banks

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۸
The aim of this study was an investigation of the effect of corporate governance on banks’ performance evidence from Indian Banks. This study tested a hypothesis according to the three levels of a model with three groups including the overall, public, and private sectors. This hypothesis focused on the relationship between different variables of the three levels in the new model of bank performance. But, based on the literature review and the basic model, the authors of the present study divided the three main hypotheses into 9 sub hypotheses. The results indicated that the relationship between corporate governance index and dimensions supported the general hypothesis, but at the level of components, all variables did not affect the dependent variable (performance) so that some variables in this level were deleted from the regression equation table. All variables in this study had a positive impact on banks’ performance and the Beta column indicated the coefficient of their impact on banks’ performance in three groups.  JEL Classification: G34, P17, G21
۳.

Regionalism and its Economic Effects on Iran in a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model:A Case Study of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Eurasian Economic Union Regionalism Computable General Equilibrium Model Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰۳
Over the last three decades, membership in regional trade arrangements has become one of the most important tools of trade diplomacy. Regional agreements bring a lot of benefits for the member countries through reducing barriers and restrictions. Considering the signing of the Interim PTA Agreement between Iran and Eurasia and its effects, this study aimed to investigate the economic effects of implementing this agreement using the CGE method by SAM 2011. Four possible scenarios were analyzed which included 50%  or  100% tariffs reduction for industry and agriculture sectors and %50 tariffs concession for one of them. The results showed that an average of 50% tariff concession in the agricultural and industrial sectors led to the growth of both sectors and increased the total consumption and welfare in Iran. In the case of 100% tariff concession, the growth of agriculture and industry will be much higher and higher welfare and total consumption will be observed. Policymakers are advised to pursue FTA between Iran and EAEU for achieving the best results. The creation of a joint financial mechanism and a database of Member States' traders, the issuance of business visas, and the establishment of a Eurasian Chamber of Commerce Joint Council are recommended.
۴.

Analysis of the Impact of Economic Sanctions on Health Research and Publication Activities of Scientists from Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: bibliometric analysis Scientific Mapping Citation Network economic processes biomedicine Sanctions Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۵
The article discusses the publication activity of scientists in the field of studying the consequences of US economic sanctions against Iran, and their impact on the development of science and the economy in this country. The paper considers the dynamics of publication activity in the field of biomedicine of Iranian scientists over the past 20 years. Increased sanctions have led to a shortage of medicines and a lack of access to modern treatment methods. The population does not have access to modern medicines. Patients cannot afford to buy expensive medicines. The general deterioration of the working and living conditions of the Iranian population led to a significant decrease in the activity of scientists. The publication activity of Iranian scientists has significantly decreased after the imposition of sanctions against Iran due to US disagreement with the country’s nuclear policy. The present study has used modern methods and scientific bases of documents. The data have been gathered from freely available electronic resources: PubMed and Dimensions. Graphs and diagrams were built using the analytical tools of electronic resources described above by the VOSviewer visualization tool. This paper has examined a new trans-corpus approach to studying the publication activity of Iranian scientists based on a comparison of the dynamics of changes in the number of publications and citations of the country’s scientists in the field of medicine, depending on the imposed international sanctions and the influence of science on the development of medicine within the framework of the sanctions policy. JEL Classification: F42, F51, I15.  
۵.

An Interaction between 3A Approach of Entrepreneurship and International Trade: Evidence from Selected Asian Countries(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Entrepreneurhip 3A Approach Gem Trade Model Asia

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۷
In the relevant literature, there has been a lack of discussion to focus particularly on the relationship between entrepreneurship and international trade. It is more restricted when one intends to seek an interaction between international trade and the indexes of the 3A approach of entrepreneurship, including entrepreneurial attitude, activities and aspirations which are collected from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The implication is that a change in trade causes more entrepreneurial opportunity to firms, while an innovation by them should lead to comparative advantage of an activity, which can be a reason for trade promotion. This study thus aims to explore the effects of three key components of entrepreneurship arising from the 3A approach of entrepreneurship on trade flows in 10 Asian countries (Iran, China, South Korea, Pakistan, Malaysia, Turkey, Japan, Russia, United Arab Emirates and Thailand) that are members of the GEM. Employing econometric methods, we test a causality relation between trade and the indexes of entrepreneurship, and then estimate an augmented trade gravity model  by using panel data and applying the GEM cross-national data during the period 2008- 2018. The empirical results have confirmed that there is an interacted causality between trade and entrepreneurship patterns in 10 selected Asian countries during the period.
۶.

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Volatility with Emphasis on Remittances: Selected Developing Countries(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Remittances Real Exchange Rate Volatility GARCH P-VAR

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۰
Remittances are one of the financial inflows that can affect the economic growth of emerging and developing countries through the exchange rate volatility channel. Many small open economies are vulnerable to volatilities and changes in capital inflows so that sudden changes in the exchange rate can affect economic growth negatively by declining investment, trade volume, and profitability. In this study, the effect of the factors that have an impact on the real exchange rate volatility has been investigated and empirically analyzed by using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and Panel Vector Autoregressive (P-VAR) approaches in the selected developing countries including Iran over the period 1980-2017. The results indicated that remittances had a positive and significant effect on the exchange rate volatility of the studied countries so that an increase in remittances caused volatilities in the real exchange rate. In addition, among other explanatory variables, foreign direct investment and government expenditures had the most negative and positive effects on real exchange rate volatilities respectively.

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