The present Russian political system is tied up with Putin's name; and Putin is consi-dered as a full-fledged political reality. Today's powerful Russia, which has got a new life after the Cold War and the weak collapse period, and has a major impact on global developments including the Middle East, is not understandable except under this title. What inspired writers to analyze Putin's performance is to study the causes of the exis-tence of a personality such as him and the formation of Putinism in today's Russian so-ciety. Knowing the performance of Putin and Putinism requires a clear answer to some questions like, why the phenomenon of Putinism in the 21st century whit democratic structure has emerged and persisted, and what is Putinism at all? The hypothesis that will be presented to understand this issue is that the long-standing political culture of Russia and the geographical and historical imperative of Russian nation have led to the emergence and continuation of Putinism in today's Russian society, as well as the secu-rity and economic problems of the 1990s, humiliation, pressure, and blockade of the west against Russia is the mainstay of the emergence and continuation of Putinism. To investigate the hypothesis of research, firstly we examine the system of pseudo-democracy and then we will discuss Putin's functions and behaviors in the economic, political, and social spheres. Finally, we will discuss about the Russian domestic context and the external factors that led to the formation of Putinism.
Despite Iran’s critical relations with USA since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Canada had often played the role of an honest broker and maintained relations with Iran, con-trary to the US. Although the Canadian Government has not viewed the Iranian regime as democratic actor, it was interested in pursuing diplomacy for moderating the Iranian Policies too. Iran and Canada relations have passed the numerous ups and downs in the diplomatic, political and economic affairs. As our major question, this study aims at in-vestigating the main factors, which affect the structure of bilateral relations. Canada has controlled engagement policy limits talks with Iran down to four main subjects: Iran’s human rights situation, its regional role, notably towards Israel and the Middle East Peace Process, its nuclear program and an unfair accusation claiming a supportive role for Iran in world terrorism. Insisting on the principles of its foreign policy with its own reasonable justifications, Iran has tried to test various ways for conserving some levels of cooperation particularity economic and for keeping so the limited links with North America. Relaying on discourse analysis, the article tries to elaborate the related issues by looking at the perspectives of both parties.
About whether Islamic philosophy can play a role in the production of humanities? There is a continuum of ideas that, on the one hand, are ideas that have neglected the role of Islamic philosophy in general. And on the other hand, there are ideas that incor-porate the teachings of Islamic philosophy into paradigmatic elements for the produc-tion of a new type of human science. In the meantime, the ideas emphasize the distinc-tive features of transcendental wisdom, such as the doctrine of the originality of exis-tence, the unity of existence, the imposition of existence and the essential movement among other branches of Islamic philosophy. But acknowledging the role of transcen-dental wisdom in directing humanities, it is clear that the teachings of transcendental wisdom do not directly relate to the humanities. The purpose of this paper is to show how the teachings of transcendental wisdom can influence the science of politics. The claim of this writing is that the teachings of transcendental wisdom constitute a series of philosophical models that, through the transposition of the teachings of transcendental wisdom and political science, make it possible for political science to benefit from tran-scendental wisdom. Examine the present claim through reference to the works of tran-scendental wisdom, and it becomes clear that the teachings of the transcendental wis-dom create philosophical patterns that, in turn, are used as the philosophical foundations of political science. The most important result of this article is the possibility of estab-lishing a science of politics based on the teachings of Transcendent Philosophy. The significance of this achievement for humanities can be used as a structural element in establishing a native paradigm in the humanities.
Gas export is one of the considerable choices in gas consumption to obtain foreign ex-change direct income by the government. Gas can be transformed and exported by various forms such as LNG and GTL. All forms of gar transformation and its export row gas with a convertible coefficient. Therefore, gas export means the total gas export through pipelines, LNG on the other forms of gas transition. Increasing concerns towards the environmental practices and human communal lives, on the other hand, due to be added the natural gas to the numbers of clean fuel applicants. Iran has the most natural gas resources in the Middle-East and universally, offers in the second stance following Russia. Therefore, it’s expected to provide the massive benefit of e4xploitation from the enormous resources of natural gas to present the appropriate opportunities for economic prosperity, industrial development and sustainable technological improvement in Iran. However, the slight share of gas in the for-eign exchange income indicates that Iran's policymaking is inefficient in regard. Analyzing and finding the main reasons for policymaking deficiency in the Islamic Republic of Iran in the gas export domain from 1996 to 2016, was a purpose by which the proposed research was formed. The results of the study indicate that regarding the technical and economic de-pendency of utilization from Iranian oil resources, on the one hand, and the critical signific-ance of oil for governing, and understanding policymaking purposes of Iran gas export is integrated into the political structure. Accordingly, the type of governing structural perspec-tive in the universal system has deprived gas export through LNG pipes and novel technol-ogies. This research is amongst the existing fundamental and theoretical research practices which aim to find originally an appropriate strategy via investigating policymaking of the Islamic Republic of Iran between 1996 to 2016, for extroverting the current issues. The data-collection method is library-based on which will be done by taking notes of the firsstance resources, and also some valid internet-based ones. The data analytical method will be a descriptive-analytical method.
This study intends to review Israel's efforts to increase political and economic relations with Arab countries. It is clear that most Arab countries did not have any ties with Israel since the 1980s, and only two Egyptian states had established political relations with Israel since the 1973 war. But over the past few years, and especially after the start of the third millennium, a new trend has been formed by the Israeli authorities, which is still ongoing. This exit-isolation process is aimed at establishing friendships with Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and other Arab league members. However, the occurrence of the Islamic Revolution and the initiation of a new ideology in the Middle East brought the new Israeli regional strategy closer to speed, and Iran gradually became the main enemy of the two sides’ in the third millen-nium. It seems that the Arab countries have forgotten their aspirations towards the Pal-estinian people and help Israel achieve its goals.
Impact of Oil Revenues on Creation of a Rentier State and Democracy in Post-revolution Iran (2005-2013)
Oil is undoubtedly the most important, and at the same time, the most politico-economic commodity in today’s world. As the most important source of economic and political power, oil has constantly played a significant role for Iranian governments both before and after the revolution , and has served as a major fuel for their economic power. However, historical experience in our country shows that having exuberant oil resources and revenue has had no significant link to welfare facilities or to becoming a welfare state; and the governments have always deprived the country from having a democratic state by creating certain rent-seeking networks. This article studies the effects of oil revenue in the formation of a democratic state accountable to its subjects while tries to show how huge amount of oil revenue during 2005 to 2013 halted the process of democratization in the country.