Iranian Distance Education

Iranian Distance Education

Iranian Distance Education, Volume 4, Issue 2, Summer & Autumn 2022

مقالات

۱.

A phenomenological study of virtual education challenges and evaluation in primary schools from the teachers and parents' perspective

تعداد بازدید : 477 تعداد دانلود : 966
With the corona epidemic, virtual education has received the attention of the educational system more than before. Taking advantage of virtual education regardless of its basic principles and possible challenges will cause obstacles and problems in the implementation, effectiveness, and practical use of its capacities. The aim of the current research was to study the phenomenological challenges of virtual education and evaluation in primary schools from the perspective of teachers and parents. The research method was qualitative and phenomenological. The participants were 34 teachers and parents of elementary school students of Gonabad city (17 persons in each group), who were selected using the snowball sampling method. To collect the data, a semi-structured interview was used. Based on theoretical saturation, 34 interviews were conducted. To analyze the data, the seven-step Claysey method was used. After removing similar items and formulating concepts, the data analysis process led to the extraction of 48 sub-concepts. Sub-concepts were categorized under 4 main categories: 1) cultural and social challenges, 2) technical and infrastructure challenges, 3) educational challenges, and 4) ethical challenges. The results of the present study can be used to solve possible challenges and increase its effectiveness while using the capabilities of virtual education.
۲.

Method of Teachers' Evaluation of Students' Performance during the CoVid-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Solutions (Investigating Lived Experience of Parents, Teachers and Professionals)

تعداد بازدید : 420 تعداد دانلود : 436
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the way teachers evaluate students' performance in the CoVid-19 Pandemic and to identify challenges and solutions to overcome problems using lived experiences of parents, teachers and professionals. The current research is qualitative. To obtain the findings, the phenomenological method (semi-structured interview) was used. In this study, 25 primary school teachers and 25 parents of students in Ardabil city and 14 experts in this field across the country were selected by purposeful sampling method and theoretical saturation criteria. The results showed that during the CoVid-19 Pandemic, teachers used different methods for evaluation and faced many challenges, and were presented with suggestions to overcome them. Parents also expressed their opinions about how to evaluate teachers and provided solutions to solve the challenges. Later, in relation to the identified challenges, experts were interviewed, and in order to overcome challenges, strategies such as expansion of combined education, elucidating philosophy of evaluation and its ethical aspect to learners and parents, the development of communication infrastructures, use of research results, conducting continuous activity-based evaluations and in a practical and inferential manner, no restrictions on the use of networks, monitoring the work of teachers, emphasizing evaluation as a tool for learning not a means of stress, evaluating high levels of students' knowledge and avoiding emphasizing the evaluation of the low level of knowledge, and various other solutions that were presented in the findings section. Therefore, it is necessary for education practitioners to take advantage of the suggestions of parents, teachers, and especially experts in order to identify the challenges in the evaluation of students during the CoVid-19 Pandemic and overcome them according to the presented suggestions.
۳.

The Effect of Philosophic Mindedness Training on increasing the Effectiveness of Virtual Training Method of the Students’ Payame Noor University

تعداد بازدید : 915 تعداد دانلود : 665
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of philosophic mindedness training on the effectiveness of students’ virtual training components. The present study was a quasi-experimental with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of this study includes all student’s master’s degree of curriculum in Payame Noor University, south Tehran branch in 1399-1400 academic year. The sample consisted of 32 students who were selected by goal-based random sampling method and randomly assigned into two experimental (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. After conducting pre-test on both groups, the experimental group received Smith's philosophical mentality dimensions (Comprehensiveness, Penetration, Flexibility) (1956) in six sessions of sixty minutes and within six consecutive weeks by e-learning method, but the control group received no intervention. The research tool was a 34-item researcher-made questionnaire. The content validity confirmed by judgment of experts and professors, and its reliability was calculated and at an acceptable level. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis of covariance (Ancova). The results showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups of experimental and control in the effect of philosophic mindedness training on the effectiveness of virtual training. Therefore, it can be concluded that by training and enhancing the dimensions of philosophic mindedness of students of the target community, it can be increased the effectiveness of virtual training courses.
۴.

Designing a learning model based on a structuralism approach in a blended learning environment in high school

تعداد بازدید : 815 تعداد دانلود : 325
The main goal of the current research was to design a learning model using the characteristic of the structural approach in a blended learning environment in high school. This research is practical and theoretical in terms of purpose, and a qualitative and quantitative sequential mixed research method has been used. To do this research, the first question of the research was answered by studying and reviewing the available texts, documents and written sources and using the literature and research background and scientific sources. To answer the second question, Meyering and Delphi content analysis technique was used. In the first stage, the answer to the second question was obtained by using the qualitative study method, the content analysis technique of Meyering, and the desired components were extracted and used as a complement to the Delphi method. In the second stage, a panel of participants was formed using the snowball sampling technique, and the relevant experts were selected, and after presenting various questionnaires and conducting interviews, the desired components and indicators were selected and confirmed by the experts.Next, to answer the third question of the research, in order to validate the designed model, the Reigeluth questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha were applied to measure its reliability.Also, Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used to determine the level of consensus in the Delphi method. In order to check the content validity, the index model (CVI) was used and to determine its general suitability, (S-CVI) applied, and finally, based on the results and taking into consideration the corrections and suggestions of the professors, the final model was designed and approved.
۵.

Analysis of Education Systems Based on Open Education:Challenges and Opportunities for Learning

تعداد بازدید : 700 تعداد دانلود : 690
According to the purpose of the research, this article analyzes educational systems based on open education: challenges and opportunities in the field of learning. This method of teaching and learning is one of the new educational methods used in open university. Due to the use of electronic tools, higher education is moving away from its traditional form and moving towards distance learning and education. This research was descriptive and qualitative method was used to collect information. In this research, the researcher introduces educational systems based on open education, and the search and collection of information was done by studying documents, libraries, and searching for various written and digital sources. It was analyzed by software. The obtained results show that this education started under the name of correspondence education in the first decade of 1700 AD and has passed through five generations until today. In addition to its advantages, open education has many challenges. These challenges were summarized in eight and 80 features. Undoubtedly, in order to achieve an open and favorable higher education system, one should try to examine the challenges in this field and then by removing the limitations and turning them into opportunities, he took a big step in the direction of the higher development of open education.
۶.

The Challenges of Learning and Practical Activities of the Undergraduate Biology Curriculum in the Coronavirus Conditions

تعداد بازدید : 787 تعداد دانلود : 631
Learning and practical activities in biology is an important element of the curriculum, which has faced challenges and opportunities in the distance education process in the conditions of the coronavirus. The aim of the research was to identify the learning challenges and practical activities of biology professors and undergraduate students of Kabul Education University -Afghanistan in virtual classes under the Covid-19 conditions. This research was conducted with a qualitative approach and grounded theory method. The research population was 36 professors and students who participated in targeted interviews of 20 men and 16 women. The results showed that (limited access to the Internet, non-implementation of practical and laboratory activities, evaluation challenges and changes in the time and place of teaching) are the things that have affected the quality of education, learning and practical activities' of biology in the Corona conditions. By creating a balanced e-learning infrastructure in all regions of the country and investing more in educational technology, can be reduced learning challenges and practical activities.
۷.

Explaining the conceptual model of sexual education in virtual space based on philosophy for children)

تعداد بازدید : 673 تعداد دانلود : 475
The purpose of this research is to explain the conceptual model of sexual education in virtual space based on philosophy curriculum for children. The method of this research to achieve the first goal is "content analysis" and to achieve the second goal is "deductive method of the type of practical analogy". The analytical community included all the documents, sources and databases related to the research topic, which were identified and then studied and analyzed in a targeted and deep way. The findings indicate that some of the most important factors affecting sex education in the virtual space based on philosophy for children are related to four cognitive, physical, social and emotional dimensions including: Meaning and acquisition of knowledge, reflection; practice in acquiring skills through practical training and collaborative activity, conscious behavior in the face of actions and natural changes of the body, situational awareness and commitment; use of individual and interpersonal skills in information exchange, society and democratic citizen. chastity and piety, the integrity of thoughts and actions) in the virtual space, which is a framework for the model of sex education in the virtual space based on philosophy for children, which can be achieved in the form of the goals of principles and educational methods. This model related to its final and intermediate goals is based on 5 principles: (cyber sexual intelligence, cyber sexual knowledge, understanding of technological sexual relations and sexual restraint, sexual responsibility and sexual ethics in cyberspace based on philosophy for children). The method of this model is the virtual community of inquiry.
۸.

Covid-19 and the challenges of distance learning from a student perspective (Case study: Islamic Azad University)

تعداد بازدید : 596 تعداد دانلود : 930
Virtual education will be an effective educational system in the effective learning of students during the outbreak of Covid-19 and after its eradication. This study aims to identify the challenges of distance education from the view point of Islamic Azad University students under Covid-19 pandemic So the research method is qualitative(grounded theory). In total, 40 MSc students of Electronic Management in the second semester of 2019-2020 were selected by purposive sampling in order to participate in structured interviews. Thematic analysis of the data obtained from the interviews was performed, and the approaches of member check and peer debriefing were used to approve the results’ credibility. Notably, the results were modified in several steps. In addition, the reliability coefficient between the encoders (75%) was applied to evaluate reliability. Data analysis was performed in Maxqda 12. According to the results, challenges of distance education for students included two individual and organizational dimensions, seven educational (11 items), communication (9 items), managerial (11 items), structural (6 items), technological (9 items), cultural (8 items), and personality component (6 items), and 60 indexes for distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic.
۹.

MALL-based Cumulative Group Dynamic Assessment in Remote Teaching: The Case of Distance Education in Iran

تعداد بازدید : 989 تعداد دانلود : 33
While various aspects of Group Dynamic Assessment (GDA) have been explored in previous studies, cumulative GDA in distance education is an under-researched area. This study aims to examine the effect of on teaching of cumulative GDA in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) settings with a focus on discourse markers. To this end, a mixed-methods design was adopted with speaking tasks of First Certificate in English (FCE) test and interviews used as the main instruments for collecting data in the quantitative and qualitative phases of this study. A total of 64 homogenized female EFL learners were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Cumulative GDA instruction of discourse markers in the experimental group was conducted by a teacher well-trained in intervention workshops. The analysis of the data based on T-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed a positive effect of GDA on the test group. In the qualitative phase of the study, interviews were used as the tool to reveal the attitudes of ten participants in the experimental group who opted to attend interview sessions. The content analysis of the interview results revealed that they had varied attitudes towards online cumulative GDA, and dominantly favoured this teaching approach in distance learning. The results highlight the importance of Assessment for learning (AfL) over Assessment of Learning (AoL) in distance education. Findings have implications for policy, practice and research.
۱۰.

Meta-synthesis of the Principals Role of Psychological and Center Skills in Implementing Blended Learning from Quantum Paradigm Perspectives

تعداد بازدید : 832 تعداد دانلود : 555
In regards to the need to use technology in the domain of learning and the important role of principals of educational organizations in implementing the blended learning, this research was carried out with the aim of identifying the parameters of psychological and center skills of principals in implementing the blended learning from quantum paradigm perspectives. The research method was qualitative and of meta-synthesis. Data collection was carried out through reviewing scientific documents and resources relevant to the subject of research in recent 31 years (1990-2021). Therefore; the related key words were searched in the reliable internal and foreign websites and finally, 42 resources were selected for final review. The review was done through studying the resources of the principals’ psychological skills in three dimensions and eleven parameters and center skill in one dimension and three parameters. The results obtained from this research showed that with regards to the identified dimensions and parameters, principals can play roles in implementing the blended learning in educational organizations, from the psychological skills, in quantum seeing dimension, by planning informed and effective leadership and confronting challenges and eliminating obstacles, in quantum thinking dimension via creative thinking, change and comprehensive thinking, in quantum feeling via accountability, supporting individuals’ rights and security, respecting values , caring about needs and talents and utilizing the process of information and from center skills perspectives and quantum being dimension, via establishing an appropriate learning atmosphere, establishing effective communication and creating a resilient and network-centric structure.
۱۱.

Presenting a causal model of the influential factors in applying continuous electronic on-the-job training in the leasing employees of Bank Mellat

تعداد بازدید : 147 تعداد دانلود : 575
The present study aimed to investigate the factors influencing applying continuous electronic on-the-job training in the leasing employees of Bank Mellat, Iran. This correlational study was conducted on a sample population consisting of all the leasing employees of Bank Mellat. Given the limited sample population, census sampling was used, and all the leasing employees of Bank Mellat (n=155) were selected. Various instruments were used to measure the research variables, including the electronic job training questionnaire by Fagan et al. (2004), the quantum management skills questionnaire by Altafi (2011), the facilitating conditions questionnaire by Raleting and Nel (2011), the knowledge sharing questionnaire by van den Hof and van Vinen (2004), the computer self-efficacy questionnaire by Wolters and Daugherty (2007), the organizational intelligence profile by Albrecht (2003), the questionnaire of perceived usefulness by Teo et al. (2007), the survey of technology use experience by Fagan et al. (2004), and the organizational culture questionnaire by Gaffy and Jones (1996). The findings indicated that among the direct effects, the most significant direct effect was exerted by the conditions of technology use on perceived usefulness (0.32), whereas the least significant direct effect was exerted by quantum skills on knowledge sharing (0.15), as well as the effect of knowledge sharing on applying continuous electronic on-the-job training (0.15). Further, the most significant indirect effect was exerted by facilitating conditions on applying continuous electronic on-the-job training (0.09), and the least significant indirect effect was exerted by organizational intelligence on applying continuous electronic on-the-job training (0.03), as well as the effect of experience in using technology on perceived usefulness (0.03). Finally, the least significant total effect was exerted by experience in using technology on perceived usefulness (0.03), and the most significant total effect was exerted by the conditions of using technology on perceived usefulness (0.32).
۱۲.

Open Pedagogy in the Thought of Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida and its Development in the Distance Education System

تعداد بازدید : 245 تعداد دانلود : 412
The present research was done to conceptualize the open pedagogy in the thought of Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida and its progression in the distance education system. In terms of the type of research, the present research is theoretical, the statistical population includes all sources and documents related to open pedagogy, the educational perspective of Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida, and distance education, which contains all electronic and written books, articles, magazines, sites and reliable databases, theses, and doctoral theses. The statistical sample is all available sources and documents related to the subject. The method of data collection is the library and the researchers studied and analyzed all electronic and written books, articles, magazines, sites, and reliable databases, theses, and doctoral theses to the extent of sufficiency. To answer the research question, the collected information was classified, analyzed, and interpreted. Education experts’ opinions have been used to determine validity and reliability. Nine key categories were extracted from the collected information: 1. Aim, 2. Teacher, 3. Student, 4. Teaching method, 5. Content and topic, 6. Planning, 7. School, 8. Evaluation, and 9. Resources. The results of the research reveal that the concept of open pedagogy existed in most of the main subcategories, except for the two categories of planning and resources. Open pedagogy is the most suitable pedagogy for distance education.