A Takfiri is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith of apostasy. The accusation itself is called Takfir, derived from the word kafir (unbeliever). The emergence of ISIS in the Middle East region and the territories in the vicinity of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as well as the support of some of the regional and extra-regional countries of this current, have led to profound changes in the local equations. The purpose of the present article is to examine one of the Middle East's fundamental problems in recent years is the emergence of Takfiri Terrorist groups particularly in Iraq. It is necessary to evaluate the theoretical emergence of the phenomenon of ISIS in this country. In terms of cultural and ethnic diversities, Iraq has always been involved with terrorist movements. A typical example of this phenomenon is the emergence and empowerment of ISIS. The control of ISIS over large Iraq and Syria areas has surprised many scholars in political and security circles. The main question is; ‘what platforms and components have been influential in the empowerment of ISIS in Iraq?’ Therefore, the main question to be explored in this study is: ‘what causes and factors led to the formation of ISIS in Iraq?’ Using a theoretical framework and a constructivist methodology and the consideration of the ontological categories that have an excellent capability to explain the emergence of ISIS in Iraq, this paper examined subjective and objective causes of ISIS's formation in Iraq.
The government and guardianship (Wilaya) have long been one of the most fundamental human societies issues. Prosperity, failure, dignity, and degradation of any society are directly affected by the power presiding over it. Therefore, universities and educational centers have long put the research, clarification, and the teaching of governing theories, principles, and sub-principles in their academic perspective. Both Shias and Sunnis accept guardianship and governance as a principle to a functioning society while disagreeing on the Islamic ruler's qualifying conditions. When theorizing the jurist's control (Wilaya of Faqih), Shia scholars solely assume their take on Islam for granted, almost irrespective of the Sunni perspective. Therefore, people may rightfully ask: ‘what are the Sunnis scholarly and jurisprudential stance on the Islamic jurist's guardianship?’ ‘Is this specific to the Shia world and limited to Shia Jurisprudential (Fiqh) theorizations or Sunnis supporting it?’ What are the privative and affirmative Sunni views for jurisprudence (Fiqaha) as a qualifying condition for the Islamic ruler?’ and ‘what are these views based?’ ‘What traits and requirements are necessary for the Islamic ruler from the Sunni scholarly perspective and whether or not it is possible to deduce the Islamic jurist's guardianship, as an exigent Islamic issue, from the Sunni-recognized Hadiths?’ These are questions to which this article will seek to provide answers from the viewpoint of political jurisprudence.
Iran's strategic position has attracted significant world powers, especially the United States, so the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has continuously monitored Iran's political and social situation. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran, the U.S. sensitivity towards the colonial theory doubled, and consequently, the CIA's espionage and interference in Iran increased. Such a situation was unbearable for Iranians who had a bitter experience of U.S. intervention in their country. Therefore, they considered a visa for the fugitive Shah by the United States as another betrayal. In return for fulfilling their demands, they seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran. With a descriptive-analytical manner, the present study aimed to answer ‘how well the CIA has worked at the U.S. Embassy in resolving the hostage crisis?’ Based on the results, with the hypothesis of CIA formal but covert intervention in Iran at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution and extensive efforts to resolve the U.S. government crisis, the CIA used its espionage process U.S. embassy after the Islamic Revolution with various tools. After capturing the embassy, they carried out many activities, including communicating with Iranian officials, mental espionage, communicating with Islamic movements, using local militias, and sending CIA officers to Iran to free the hostages. Define all these cases in the collection of maintaining colonialism and domination over Iran.
Justice is a concept that has always been of interest to scientists and thinkers. In the Holy Quran, one of the primary purposes of sending prophets is to establish justice among the people. Achieving this great goal is the duty of governments, but it has always faced many obstacles and problems. Imam Khomeini, as a scholar of Islam and justice Seeker, with a deep understanding of the importance of justice in the Qur'an and Sunnah and the fact that many of the problems and difficulties of the society are rooted in the disbelief or confrontation of the rulers with justice has been commented on many times. This research has been done descriptively and analytically, and its findings indicate that, according to Imam Khomeini, the Islamic government is responsible for eliminating oppression, discrimination, and justice in society and should prioritize this issue and Work through practical solutions to achieve this. He points to some of the essential topics and tasks of the Islamic State in this regard, such as self-sufficiency and independence by eliminating colonial domination, emphasizing internal forces and facilities with public participation, fair distribution of wealth for the benefit of the deprived. In the face of the income and class gap, while considering the criterion of valuing science and piety, establishing equality in all dimensions, including against the law, in elections, in having cultural, political, and economic opportunities, abandoning hereditary, racial, aristocratic and similar privileges.
The law legitimate power. Over the 20th century, constitutions have been an essential part of the dynamic. ‘How can be the Iranian constitution assessed over the long term?’ ‘How do people evaluate their legitimacy?’ ‘Does the issue matter at all for theoreticians at the leading edge of science?’ Iranian revolutionary constitutionalism has an essential role in Bruce Arnold Ackerman's thesis of contemporary legitimacy. Avoiding the pitfalls of Weber's thesis, which accounts for legality to tradition, charisma, and bureaucratic rationality, Ackerman holds that modern notions over the legitimacy based on constitutions. This paper tends to analyze the position of the Iranian revolutionary structure in the mentioned theory. The first scenario in Ackerman's trichotomy is "Revolutionary Constitutionalism," whereas "the insider-establishment providing modest outsiders with strategic concessions" constitutes the second, followed by a third "elite construction constitutionalism." As an example of the first scenario, he mentions the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as well as France, Italy, India, and South Africa. While Mao's and Stalin's periods regarded as two negative examples of the thesis, Iranian revolutionary constitutionalism represents positive revolutionary constitutionalism and democratic government.
In early Islam, developed various theories around the nature of the created civilization, some of which run counter to each other. Denying Islam’s potential for culture, Arabic civilization, eclectic civilization, Muslims’ civilization, and Islamic civilization are the most significant theories advanced about this issue. Yet, the main question is which theory of Islam’s civilization history is authentic enough to be validated. The current research has adopted a historical-analytical method and employed library resources and interviews to collect data. Analyzing and criticizing the theories described above showed that none of these theories deserves an all-out acceptance in the levels of substantiation or historical evolution. This research has finally submitted proofs on the validity of the "Islamic Civilization" theory in the story of demonstration (realization) and the new idea of "Islam’s Civilization" at the level of substantiation. This study attempts to shed light on historical reality and explain the theory consistent with it to prevent elites’ destructive predilection and strategic failures. Considering that the Islamic Republic of Iran has planned toward fulfilling new Islamic civilization, the current study recognized the necessity for exploiting this subject. The innovation of this writing resides in proposing and confirming the theory of "Islam’s Civilization" through substantiation based on historical data and evaluation of existing ideas in terms of weaknesses and strengths.