Return on investment is a driving force that motivates and is a reward for investors. Investment returns are important for investors, in order for the entire investment game to be realized. Evaluating efficiency is the only logical way (Before risk assessment) that investors can do to compare alternative and different investments. Measuring real returns (relative to the past) is needed to better understand investment performance. Particularly, the study of past returns has a major role in predicting and predicting future returns. Therefore, the present study seeks to "investigate the effect of the internal rate of return on cash recycling on unusual returns as well as the effect of cost leadership strategies variables on the relationship between the internal rate of return on cash recycle and the unusual returns in the period from 2009 to 2013. In this research, the sample consists of 72 companies that have been selected by systematic elimination method, which is a total of 360 years. In this research, linear regression and correlation coefficient were used to investigate the hypotheses of the research. EVIEWS software has been used to analyse the data and test the research hypotheses. According to the regression results, the following results were obtained: 1. An internal rate of return on cash recycling affects unusual returns. 2. The internal rate of return based on the recycling of cash The abnormal returns affect the strategy of cost leadership.
Financial structure is a combination of debt and equity and regards as one of the most important issues in banking industry. The purpose of financial structure decision is to create an appropriate combination of financing resources to minimize the cost of capital and thus maximize the company's market value. This study investigates the impacts of banks financial structure on their Returns (ROA and ROE). In addition, it investigates the moderating roles of corporate governance, financial constraints, capital intensity and size. This research is an applied descriptive correlational research. To test the hypotheses, unbalanced panel data is used. The financial data extracted from “Rah Avarde Novin" software and the database of "Tadbir Pardaz" company. The statistical population includes all banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange during the years 2009 to 2016. The results indicate a positive significant impacts of financial structure and the banks’ ROA and ROE. Moreover, the results show that capital intensity and the size significantly moderate the relation between financial structure with ROA and ROE.
Choosing the financial supply is one of the most important decisions for providing optimal structure that can be effective for firm value and stocks market of companies. Therefore, marketing as one of the abilities of the firm can be effective on firm function. The purpose of this research is studying the role of marketing intensity on the relation of financial leverage and firm function in Companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. This study is performed between 2012 and 2016 and 103 firms are studied in this research. The independent variables in this research are financial leverage and marketing intensity. The dependent variable is firm evaluation that Tobin's Q is used for evaluating this variable. For evaluating the research variables, Eviews 9 software is applied. The research findings illustrate there is not a U relation between financial leverage and firm function and marketing intensity is not a moderator between these two variables.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of behavioral variables on overconfidence in management, herding behavior and investors' emotional tendency on stock return. To this end, by using the data of firms listed in the Iran's Stock Exchange during the seven-year period of 2010-2016, overconfidence index in management, the herding behavior of the investors and the emotional tendency of the investors were calculated and their impact on stock return was examined. The data of the research are of a panel type and for analyzing the data and testing the hypotheses; a multiple linear regression model has been used. Evidence from the experimental results of the research showed that the behavioral variables studied in the research has a significant and inverse effect on the stock return of the companies.
The phenomenon of the financial crisis is not a new phenomenon around the world. The structure of an economy or a set of economies may face a financial crisis. In fact, it is deformation, dimensions, causes and roots of the financial crisis which create a state of change from this crisis. Recently, evidence has shown that the market value of firms subject to bankruptcy is significantly reduced. In this study, the impact of the financial crisis on conservative accounting and transparency of banks in Iran has been studied. After designing the transparency indicators, the transaction information was collected from the Stock Exchange in the five-year period of 2011-2015. The statistical sample consists of 18 banks selected by systematic elimination method, which in total were 90 years-bank. In this research, linear regression and correlation were used to investigate the hypotheses of the research. Eviews software was used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. What can be said in the overall conclusion of testing the hypotheses is that the financial crisis affects the conservative accounting and transparency of banks.
In this paper, with help of the concept of hyper-rationality, we model the interaction between two investment companies by an important game as trickery game that has special equilibrium which called hyper-equilibrium. In trickery game, one company can choose cooperation with another company until the last moment and finally changes his action to non-cooperation which incur more loss to an opponent. Indeed, the hyper-equilibrium is the point in which only one player can displace equilibrium to another point by changing his action which causes profit or loss to other players so they cannot change their action. Our findings indicate that the kind of behaviour interactive, environmental conditions, and valuation system are based on hostility causes an equilibrium point to incur the maximum loss to an opponent.
The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between the comparability of financial statements as a qualitative financial reporting feature with the expected risk of stock price crash. The statistical population of this research includes all companies admitted to Tehran Stock Exchange. In order to achieve the research goal, 81 companies were selected for the period between 2010 and 2017 as a sample of the study. The research aimed at being an applied research and the research method is in terms of the nature and content of the correlation. The research has been performed in the framework of deductive-deductive reasoning and for analysis of the research hypothesis; statistical analysis of the logistics has been assisted. The results of the research hypothesis test showed a significant and negative relationship between the comparability of financial statements and the expected crash in stock prices.
<span lang="EN-GB">This research presents a mathematical model for performance-based budgeting and combines it with rolling budget for increased flexibility. The model has been designed by Chebyshev's goal programming technique with fuzzy approach. The parameters or coefficients of the model are derived by measuring the productivity of the organizations considering eight criteria. Data for calculating productivity indicators were collected from gas refineries of Iran in 2011–2015 and analysed by Excel and GAMS software. Then, the model was tested for determining the 2016 budget of those refineries. The model was solved by LINGO software by linking it to Excel. The solution of the model reduced 0.68% of the total refinery's budget compared with the actual budgets for 2016, which is higher than the annual budget of some of the companies in this group.</span>