تحقیقات کاربردی زبان انگلیسی - Applied Research on English Language

تحقیقات کاربردی زبان انگلیسی - Applied Research on English Language

Applied Research on English Language, V. 12 , N. 3 , 2023 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Answer Changing in Online and Traditional Pen-Paper Tests: The Case of Upper Intermediate EFL Learners with Different Cognitive Styles(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Answer Changing Online Tests Pen Paper Tests EFL Learners cognitive styles

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
The present study addressed the effects of cognitive styles on answer-switching practices across online and traditional tests. After completing Ehrman and Leaver’s (2003) cognitive style questionnaire, a sample of upper intermediate students took pen-paper and online versions (59 test-takers each) of an already validated teacher-developed test of English. The data from think-aloud and erasure analyses revealed significantly more frequent total and right-to-wrong changes in the traditional and online tests, respectively. Multiple regression values explained more than 50% of right/wrong-to-wrong, wrong-to-right, and overall answer-changing variance based on cognitive styles in the pen-paper exam. However, the regression results from online performance analyses could not prove the power of thinking styles in predicting answer-changing strategies. Fisher’s exact tests showed significantly different answer-changing strategies adopted by field-dependent, leveler, analog, concrete, and impulsive individuals in the traditional test but no significant differences between the behaviors of individuals with different cognitive styles in the online exam. Based on the present findings, online and pen-paper platforms may require different test-taking strategies. Language instructors and test developers can use these findings to align their instructional and assessment practices with various cognitive styles and testing environments.
۲.

The Impact of Explicit Instruction of Critical Thinking on EFL Learners' Critical Thinking Skills(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Critical thinking questions Critical discourse analysis Peer review Critical linguistics

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶
Many studies have advocated the importance of teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, and have also provided some suggestions for its effective pedagogy. However, there is a dearth of research examining the efficacy of such instruction. This quantitative(quasi-experimental) and qualitative study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit instruction of critical thinking (CT) on university students’ critical thinking skills measured through the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) used as both pre- and post-test. The participants comprised four groups of 15-16 students each. The groups received different CT treatments: Critical Linguistics (CL) and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (group 1), 11 Questions (group 2), CL and CDA followed by Peer Evaluation (group 3), and a control group (group 4) that only read about CT without practicing it. After receiving instruction on CT, the three treatment groups (1-3) critically analyzed 33 texts over 11 sessions. The results of the study indicated that Group 3 (CT & CDA followed by PE) had the highest improvement in their WGCTA scores from pre-to post-test, followed by Groups 2 and 1, while the control group showed no significant gain. The findings imply that reflecting critically on language learning materials can reveal hidden cultural and ideological elements within the texts. This can significantly enhance learners' advanced thinking skills, as well as support them in resisting cultural imperialism.      
۳.

Teacher Scaffolding in English-Medium Content-Based Instruction: Modes of Classroom Interaction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Scaffolding Classroom Modes Content-Based Instruction (CBI) Science Classes conversation analysis (CA)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
The provision of scaffolding entails contingent assistance given to learners. Despite the proliferation of research on scaffolding, scant attention has been devoted to studying the modes of classroom interaction in fulfilling various scaffolding intentions in content-based instruction (CBI). To narrow the gaps, the present qualitative study embarked on an investigation of science teachers’ scaffolding in four modes proposed by Walsh (2006), namely managerial, classroom context, skills and systems, and materials modes. Four science teachers participated in this qualitative study, and 12 sessions of science classes were observed and analyzed deductively based on four classroom modes through conversation analysis (CA). The content analysis of the videotaped recordings indicated that managerial and materials modes were frequently used to enhance students’ comprehension and develop classroom interaction. The findings evidenced that pedagogical objectives were mostly related to cognitive structuring, contingency management, and direction maintenance requirements. Furthermore, the findings revealed that students’ engagement and involvement through recruiting interest was the only scaffolding intention employed in all four modes to involve students in the learning process. The findings can provide insights to teachers and teacher educators in the realization of distinct scaffolding intentions in various classroom modes by delineating the interrelationship between language use and teaching purpose.  
۴.

Leniency in Translation Assessment and Raters’ Personality Traits of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Translation Assessment Agreeableness conscientiousness Leniency model

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
Considering the body of research on the intersection of psychology and assessment that suggests assessment is not only under the influence of the model against which a translation is assessed, the present study aimed to investigate the role of raters’ personality traits in their assessment. It was also intended to see if the application of an agreed-upon unified assessment tool could change the way evaluations are made, and if this possible change is the same among raters with different personality traits. To this end, seven raters were asked to score an English text translated by 23 students twice with an interval of at least two weeks. In the first scoring, they were asked to assess the way they usually did with no specific guidelines. However, the second assessment was done through the application of an agreed-upon model. Moreover, the raters were scored on the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness as it is believed that these two traits are predictors of leniency. The data analyzed revealed (1) a significant correlation between the raters’ score on agreeableness and the scores they assigned to the translations, and (2) a significant negative correlation between the raters’ score on conscientiousness and the scores they assigned to the translations. This proved that more agreeable less conscientious raters are prone to be more lenient. The value of Cronbach alpha also revealed that more conscientious less agreeable raters were more consistent in their assessments in both rounds of scoring. This, however, turned out not to be the case for less conscientious raters.
۵.

The Impact of a Teacher Education Course on Iranian EFL Pre-service Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL pre-service teachers Pedagogical Beliefs philosophy of education Teacher Cognition

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
This study investigated the impact of a teacher education course on pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs. A sample of 84 Iranian EFL pre-service teachers who had just been accepted to Farhangian University were selected through convenience sampling. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, their pedagogical beliefs were measured through a researcher-made questionnaire before and after a training course on the philosophy of education for English language teachers. Moreover, the changes reported by the participants were traced through thematic analysis of their reflective journals. Finally, in a focus group interview, they commented on the contributing factors to the success of the course in changing their pedagogical beliefs. The results of quantitative data demonstrated the impact of the training course on changing the participants’ pedagogical beliefs. The analysis of qualitative data obtained from the reflective journals indicated that the changes that the participants professed were of two emerging themes of raising awareness of new assumptions and adopting new pedagogical beliefs. In addition, the analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that the participants attributed the course success to the implementation of appropriate teaching strategies, the course contents, and the teacher educator’s performance. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that EFL pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs can be modified in training courses of teacher education programs if a safe and collaborative atmosphere is created for them to critically reflect on their prior pedagogical beliefs within innovative theoretical frameworks.  
۶.

Presenting a Profile of Teacher Agency among Iranian EFL University Instructors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Agency Iranian Instructors Professional Agency Teacher Agency

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰
Agency is a significant element in both teacher education and school improvement because it informs how teachers make sound professional decisions. As such, the present study attempted to explore (a) Iranian university instructors’ conception of teacher agency; (b) components of teacher agency; and (c) the role of initial motives on the instructors’ professional agency. To address these issues, benefiting from purposive sampling, five participants were interviewed using the semi-structured interview as the main instrument. The findings indicated that Iranian university instructors believe that teacher agency is an important element in both language teaching and real-life contexts. As for the second concern of the study, the results revealed that personal, professional, and critical components are important. Regarding the third one, initial motives influence instructors’ professional agency. It seems the overall profile of teacher agency in the Iranian context consists of the following key components extracted from the interviews, namely, decision-making, professional development, purposeful acting, making changes, self-reactiveness, intentionality, and forethought. Based on the major findings of the study, concluding remarks are discussed and some tips for further research are presented.  

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