The growth and development of urban settlement have always been accompanied by industrial activities. Previous experience shows that after industrialization of the countries and the local selection of their industries in big cities, these cities have faced with enormous work force immigration and have observed severe changes in their urban system. These changes are mostly caused by the execution of the growth pole policy and the concentrated distribution of industries in these countries’ centers. In Iran, after the solar 1340s (1961-1971C.E.), we have observed severe changes in urban system that its coincidence with the country’s industrialization requires lots of considerations. The execution of the industries’ establishment prohibition in a distance of 120 kilometers from Tehran is the appearance of one of the presented means in this era. But we still witness the big industries’ presence by 90% in Tehran in 1981. This paper is to proceed with the method of industries’ distribution in Iran by analyzing the place of small and big industries separately in cities with a population of more than 100.000 members. The results of the analysis express that 55% of the 28663 active workshops registered in cities with a population of more than 100.000 members are selected their local in only 7 cities namely Tabriz, Mashhad, yazd, Isfahan, Qom, Tehran, and Karaj, which shows a kind of disproportion in the industries’ distribution across the country. Also, more than 90% of the existing active industrial workshops in cities with a population of more than 100.000 members have been in the range of less than 50 employed industries that included 50% of the employed members in the industry sector.
Evaluation of effectiveness of municipality actions toward making the surrounding areas of the subway stations into pedestrian-oriented spaces (case study: Sadeghiyeh subway station)
Urban spaces refer to the man-made spaces which possess a special order for human behavior and activities. One of these spaces is the surrounding space of public transportation stations. The subway stations, although potentially encompass many different groups of people; few social interactions take place in these spaces. In this regard, by making the surrounding areas of the subway stations be pedestrian-oriented, the potential for increasing the socialization capacity of the mentioned spaces will be provided.The Sadeghieh Subway Station can be considered as the most important subway station in Tehran, which on the one hand is the rail port of Tehran’s western entrance, and on the other is the port for railway journeys inside the city. The main concern of this study is to assess the success or failure of the interventions made by the municipality for changing the surrounding area of the Sadeghieh Subway Station into a pedestrian-oriented space. The method used in this study is surveying, in which the data were collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study’s population is all people who use Sadeghieh Subway, and the sample size for the study were considered 140 subjects.The results shows that after the municipality’s actions to change the space into a pedestrian-oriented space the district have a progressive process in such cases as transportation, security, Pedestrian infrastructure, vitality and attractivity rate to remain in the space, the amount of traffic crossing the sidewalk, walking group, the lighting, the vendors, the cleaning, pavement structure and climatic elements. but in such cases as mix use, recreational activity, readability and design furniture no significant change was seen, and in some cases the results were counterproductive.
The study of attitude of Tehran citizens about life in urban social space and citizens' social vulnerability
Presently, half of world population lives in cities and in many countries such as Iran, most of people live in cities and metropolitans. The city evolution and new conditions in metropolitans are considered uncontrollable and it is believed that the future base of mankind forms in cities as Park points the city as the natural habitat of human in modern age. The urban population deals with various and somehow annoying problems as it can be said that most of social damages are appeared in cities. The urban management faces with difficult responsibility of controlling these damages. This paper attempts to study the citizen's social vulnerability in Tehran according to urban social space approach. Here, different views such as Chicago school, Dickens theory, Castells theory and social approaches such as Chicago school and social disorganization theory are applied. The paper is a survey and questionnaire is the tools of data collecting. The results showed the high rate of citizen vulnerability in relation with research variables such as self-alienation, rationalism, less emotional relationships, less social integration and more individualism.
Every year, crises cause extensive and occasionally irreversible damage to countries and human societies affecting communities, economies, and environments. Identifying, proper planning, and optimum managing of crises are among the priorities of government programs and procedures. With the expansion and complexity of the societies and variety and innumerability of crisis-making factors, mere use of traditional methods of reinforcement and crisis management would not be efficient. One of the most important ideas brought about in the present decade for crisis management and urban planning is creating resilient cities in the face of various crises by increasing their capacity in all aspects. The significance of this standpoint is the comprehensive look at crisis-making factors, controlling crises, and reduction of vulnerability, particularly in human resources, which speeds the resilience process. Although all infrastructural or environmental, economic, social-cultural, and organizational or institutional aspects have been taken into consideration in resilience, the focus on social and cultural capacitating in each and every citizen would be greatly effectual in a developing country such as Iran. This land endures weak infrastructures and structures, but enjoys a rich cultural and national support from the citizens’ creativity and participation that can help us with achieving the goal of flexibility in crisis management by spending the least amount of time and money. In the present paper, the experiences of other nations and novel concepts such as creative cities, resistant development, principles of futures study and planning, and process-oriented strategic management have been studied along with the current state of Iran. Finally, the method of “Strategic Futures Study and Planning based on GIS” is suggested as a suitable approach in crisis management planning. In the author’s point of view, complete use of this method could help us significantly reduce the losses of disasters and pioneer in the field of crisis management among developing countries.<br /> <strong> </strong>
Identity Elements in the Traditional Architecture of Iranian Houses (Case Study of Sheikh-al-Islam House)
With the arrival of cultural factors and design patterns of other countries, Especially in western countries, culture and the identity of the Iranian community, there has also been a change; Therefore, today the discussion about identity and cultural factors has been considered in various scientific branches. Since one of the methods of studying the identity of a society is the attention to the elements of space organization and its relation with the culture of society, In order to identify the identity of the traditional Iranian society, the study of cultural identity elements and design patterns in traditional Iranian architecture seems to be a good way. This article is sought after to identifying components in the traditional architecture of Iranian houses and examine the appearance of identity elements in the traditional architecture elements of houses in Iran. The combined research methodology includes descriptive, analytical methods of case study type. In this way, the subject of research has been studied using field observations and library studies. At the beginning, a definition of identity and Identity creation was given in architecture, and then a sample of these traditional houses called Sheikh-al-Islam house was studied. And the result of this study shows that in the design of traditional Iranian houses, the architect is familiar with the identity elements, for example, national and religious values and so on.
Nowadays one of the most important subjects discussed in the field of Management and planning of social and spatial development of cities is strategic schematization, which in case of proper usage can lead to arrangement and optimum usage of the resources and existing possibilities and desirable symphonic constant growth. Strategic schematization is actually systematic methods that cause incorporation and premiership actions considering four important parameters which are internal strengths and weaknesses and external chances and threats. With the help of this schematization we find out where we are, where we need to go and how we should get there. On the other hand one of today’s most important discussions in the world in the field of urban management and extension, according to the growth of urbanization, is the creation of metropolises and their problems and difficulties. The development of ICT contraction and information technology and its specific capability in haltering, controlling, omitting or reducing the difficulties of urban society has caused the idea of electronic cities which is in need of creating electronic organizations which is followed by electronic governments. Because of the unique traits such as exact and quick analyzing of the descriptive information related to them and also urban management needs of today’s society, the GIS positional information systems have changed into a safe tool to patronage the decisions of the reference location. Therefore achieving a complete useful location information system needs a calculated and proper short term and long term schematization. In this process using new methods of strategic schematization which includes analyzing SWOT as surveying and identifying the current situation, valuating and analyzing GIS needs and eventually recording the strategic and massive program can be very effective and solving. In this article surveying this subject and discovering paths towards this achievement has been discussed.