Mountains are of high importance in Iran due to the particular geography of this land. In addition to being ecologically significant, mountains offer multiple functions for Iranians that makes these natural elements to have different meanings for people to the point that most of the mountains adjoining residential areas have special names. In this regard, this research tries to study Alborz Mountains as the most important historically and ecologically mountains in Iran where Tehran, the most populated city and the capital of Iran, is located. Research in this area shows that the function of Alborz Mountains have changed for the people over time or have declined to a lower status. These mountains do not have their previous position in the minds of the people, and the authors believe that Iranians used to be consider Alborz Mountains as a cultural element with objective and subjective aspects. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the functions of Alborz Mountains and to study the relationship between mountains and people over time in order to find the meaning of the Alborz Mountains in terms of documentary and historical studies. The results of the research show that based on the conceptual scope of the landscape approach (which is a holistic and objective-minded approach to nature), the city and the mountains in general are not the main reasons for negligence of Alborz Mountains in the minds of people. In addition, the mountains for the people of Tehran, who are the main inhabitants of Alborz Mountains, are no longer a cultural landscape element with objective and subjective aspects. The objective aspects of mountains have been gradually disappeared or decreased considerably due to the loss of their objective functions and these elements have been eventually transformed into subjective elements.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatial justice in different dimensions (physical, social, economic, and environmental) in order to have balance regarding four regions of Shahriyar city. The spatial justice approach in a city is used for controlling and reducing the physical-spatial inequalities as well as a fair distribution of municipal services and facilities in different areas of the city. In this study, the spatial justice of four areas of Shahriyar city was evaluated with 13 criteria and 27 indicators. This study was carried out through exploratory-analytical research method that used two models of the analytic hierarchy and the shortest distance. Eventually, the final map of different access levels was drawn through combining fuzzy logic with these two models. The findings and obtained results through Topsis model indicated that area 1 of Shahriyar city had the highest rank in social, economic, physical, and environmental indicators. However, the area 3 had unfavorable economic and physical conditions, and area 2 had unfavorable environmental conditions. Having integrated Topsis and Fuzzy models, it was shown that areas 1 and 2 were considered as privileged regions and areas 3 and 4 were respectively determined as the semi-privileged and nonprivileged regions. Moreover, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method indicated that areas 1 and 4 had better conditions and areas 3 and 2 are respectively on the lower levels. Finally, after combining the results of fuzzy and AHP models, the final map was designed. It showed that the areas 1 and 4 were privileged regions; areas 3 and 4 were respectively the semi-privileged and underprivileged regions of the Shahriyar city. Generally, the results of this study indicated that the physical-spatial development of Shahriyar city was unbalanced and did not meet the conditions of equity-based city.
The Problematic Relation between University as a Topos and World-Epoch of Virtuality as a New-Arising all-encompassing Topos
In this article I have tried to conceptualize some problematic issues regarding the status of university in what I have named ‘world-epoch of virtuality’. In my view, world-epoch of virtuality has changed the meanings and functions of the concepts of time and space as well as the concepts of knowledge, science and education which traditionally dealt with in/and through university. So, it seems that the idea and functions of university are being changed. The concept of ‘topos’ is central to my account, because it encapsulates all the meanings related to time, space and knowledge.
Today, urban areas are among the most complex social landscapes. In order to detect and to resolve urban social problems, urban planners require a deep recognition of this complexity. Synthetic homogeneous neighborhoods offer one approach in moving towards reimagining some of the invisible socioeconomic aspects of urban life. In this paper, we use Openshaw’s Automated Zone Design (AZD) methods that utilize an array of factors and algorithms to generate new homogenous socio-spatial units based on both statistical and heuristic procedures. The results are polygons (pseudo neighborhoods) which represent a specific underlying socioeconomic patterning across the city. Using Tehran as our case, the hidden socioeconomic patterns are different from the administrative city divisions and cartographic. The consistency of the new zone design was checked through global and local Moran’s I; upon given assumption that for the resulted homogenous polygons (neighborhood), there is no spatial autocorrelation in the new zone design map. The results showed the random distribution for all but one socioeconomic indices in the new zone design map. The result converts heterogeneous urban divisions into new homogenous polygons (neighborhoods) by regrouping basic socioeconomic and spatial units.
Ever-increasing population and urbanization have had a detrimental effect on the cities and the continuing urbanization resulted in the social, economic, and environmental problems of the cities which is a crisis and the warning for the cities’ sustainability. This situation is also the case in many cities in Iran, which are faced with the consequences of urban rapid growth and the lack of sufficient financial and human resources in the management process. It is well understood that the livability based on the participation of residents in a neighborhood emphasizes on the social capital, public participation and the sense of belonging of the neighborhood residents. This, with an emphasis on the role of people and community in the neighborhood, can provide better outcome to the neighborhood in identifying neighborhood problems and subsequently decision making, planning and the related authorities in a neighborhood. Indicators of this study are socioeconomic, physical, and environmental indicators. The purpose of this research is to identify the threats, opportunities and capabilities of Zone1 in District 9 by using a survey in the form of a five-point Likert scale. This study was done by using the SWOT model and prioritizing them using a Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM). The results of the research show that the construction of class parking, the construction of a hangout, the rehabilitation of existing gardens and parks, defining of the incentive development projects in the state and municipal lands, are of the basic needs of the neighborhood and have the highest priority which are mostly physical and infrastructural.
The effect of communication globalization on citizen’s tendencies towards environment protection: Case study of Tehran citizens
The increase in environmental pollutions and the daily increasing destruction of the ecology have caused worries in the societies and drawn their attentions towards the reasons, outcomes as well as the methods of reducing them. Various factors are involved in reducing the aforesaid threatening conditions. The present study emphasizes on the role of the media and globalization of the communications and deals with the inclinations towards guarding and protecting the environment amongst the citizens residing Tehran. The present study makes use of a survey method. A total of 277 residents from Tehran were selected in urban districts one, five and fourteen. To analyze the obtained data, use was made of correlation analysis and multivariate regression test. The study findings of the correlation analysis part are reflective of the existence of a positive and significant relationship between the globalization of the communications and tendencies towards the environment conservation. As for the tendencies towards the environment protection, the study findings are suggestive of the idea that the study participants have been assessed in three levels, namely cognitive, affective and behavioral (in two dimensions of intervention and participation), and that the increase in the enjoyment of the global communications brings about an increase in individuals’ tendencies for environment conservation. These bioenvironmental analyses enable the instigation of more attention in the general public. However, the general public’s sensitivity might be provoked by means of the media and communications. It seems that the media analyses of the environment shoulders the essential role for the favorable bioenvironmental governance. Therefore, the most rational thing to do about the protection of the resources and environment is giving value to the media and communications.
The phenomenon of lifestyle and the architecture of apartments in Iran (Case study: the apartments in District 9, Tehran)
The term lifestyle, which had first been set forth by Alfred Adler in 1929, quickly entered other areas of science. Different scholars have stated various definitions of this term in different scientific fields. The general definition of this term is the social and cultural changes in the everyday life of the people. The major changes in lifestyle in the contemporary times have been made by the increased efficiency of modernity and technology in people's lives. Modernity entered Iran in Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar era; but, its effects in construction are seen in the last 50 years after the adoption of comprehensive urban plans. These changes have changed the content and function of the traditional home and turned them into apartments. The subject of the study is District 9, Tehran, which is located in the central axis of Tehran and has been less invaded by the rapid development. Thus, the gradual changes in the texture and housing in that area can be studied. The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in apartments in the last 50 years in Tehran. The main question was how the spatial changes of the elements of residential apartments in Tehran was. The results showed that among the changes the ratio of spaces - bedroom, living room, and dining room and kitchen - in the 10 and 15-year intervals, the ratio of the average kitchen size in residential apartments has not changed during 50 years. However, the ratio of the average size of the bedroom and living room and dining room spaces during this period has changed greatly, but regression to the initial point was obtained at the end.