From the beginning of the human civilization many forms and methods of physical training، with consideration to some spiritual or religious believes، social values and/or political exigencies have emerged and some of them for somehow the same reasons have vanished in the course of time. Zoorkhaneh (home of physical strength) and Varzesh-e-Bastani (special kind of physical training) are some of these historically precious legacies of the Mithraic era that are still، more or less، surviving in some parts of I.R. of Iran. This ancient school of thought in human physical education، skill، prowess، and vigor، all in deep concentration and meditation، is still alive and as a legacy of the past deserves much attention to live longer. The purpose of the study was fourfold: 1-Introduce Zoorkhaneh and Varzesh-e-Bastani to specialists in the areas of physical education and sports in a larger scale، 2-provide the grounds for the sport historiographers for more studies in the related areas، 3-provide the basic knowledge about this rich method of physical education for the people who are seeking different ways of physical exercise، 4-contribute to the preservation of an ancient method of physical training that was once one of the bests in the world. The materials presented in this article are based on the experience of the authors، as well as، the extant research documents and books. The article includes information about: definition of a selected number of technical terms and jargons; historical، philosophical and religious background; past and present physical structure; instruments and equipments; session program; and lastly، contemporary aspects and trends of the Zoorkhaneh and Varzesh-e-Bastani.