Journal of Interdisciplinary Qur'anic Studies (مطالعات بین رشته ای قرآن)

Journal of Interdisciplinary Qur'anic Studies (مطالعات بین رشته ای قرآن)

Interdisciplinary Qur'anic Studies, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2022

مقالات

۱.

The spectrum of consciousness in the world

کلید واژه ها: Spectral approach the Qur'an and science the consciousness of beings Intelligence

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 230 تعداد دانلود : 600
In this paper, we try to show, based on scientific evidence, that assigning consciousness to humans and calling the "world without humans" meaningless does not seem like a comprehensive approach. The intellectual foundation of this attitude is based on a kind of "spectral approach" in examining the phenomena of the world. To explain this attitude, we refer to evidence of scientific findings to show that our lack of understanding of the consciousness of other beings does not mean the lack of intelligence in them. We also show that many phenomena in this world are spectral. Then, based on the verses of the Qur'an and the concept of the dignity of beings from the perspective of Islamic philosophy, we conclude that other creatures also have a hierarchy of intelligence that we describe here as "the spectrum of consciousness".
۲.

The Scientific Explanation of Ṣayḥah as a Divine Punishment of Some Ancient Tribes Mentioned in the Qur’an

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Scientific Miracle of the Qur'an Interdisciplinary Qur'anic Studies Scientific Interpretation Ṣayḥah in Qur'an Shock Waves Qur'an and Science

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 296 تعداد دانلود : 134
The narration of the life of some of the past tribes who lived after Noah has been mentioned in detail or in summary in the Qur’an. The fate of these tribes has mostly ended in divine punishment, which based of the geographical location, the type of sins of the people, and other reasons, this punishment has had different external manifestations, such as storm, ṣayḥah, sinking into the ground and drowning in water. Since the function of ṣayḥah (which is translated as loud and strong sound) as a destructive force is not as clear as the other punishments mentioned, the main goal of this research is to scientifically explain the function of ṣayḥah as a divine punishment. Due to the semantic similarities of ṣayḥah to sound wave (a type of pressure wave), the proposal here is the correspondence of ṣayḥah to shock wave which can be defined as a strong sound wave with a large amplitude. Recent advances in science have shown that this type of wave has a very high destructive power and has the ability to cause serious damage to living tissues of the body.  In this research, first, the different meanings of the word ṣayḥah have been studied according to Arabic lexicons, and then the verses of the Qur’an related to punishment by ṣayḥah that some past tribes have suffered have been carefully investigated. After studying the possibility of the destruction of the ṣayḥah, both in terms of the Qur’an and the latest developments in physics, as a suggestion for scientific interpretation, shock wave, which is a type of sound waves, has been proposed as a possible example to the punishment by ṣayḥah.
۳.

The Study on Qur'anic surahs' Structured-ness and their Order Organization Using NLP Techniques

کلید واژه ها: Natural Language Processing Word2vec Quran Topic Sameness Surahs' Structuredness TF-IDF

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 256 تعداد دانلود : 667
The study of surahs' structure has attracted researchers' attention in recent years. One of the theories herein is the theory of Topic Sameness which acknowledges that each surah of Quran has formed on a single topic. The theory of Introduction and Explanation as one of the most important branches of Topic Sameness, proposes that the Almighty states the topic of each surah at the first section, elaborates it at different parts of the surah in the forms such as stories, signals of nature, and future predictions, and concludes from the stated contents at the final part. In this paper, we accordingly intend to study the two theories using NLP techniques for the first time. In this regard, based on the three methods of tf-idf, word2vec and roots' accompaniment in verses, the similarity of Quranic roots is computed. Then, the amount of similarity of the concepts within surahs to each other is calculated and compared with the random mode. The results show that the studied surahs hold the inner coherence between the concepts so that they have been formed on a single topic or a few topics related to each other. In addition, the study on the similarity between the first and the body sections of each surah shows that the structure of Introduction and Explanation seems to be true for many surahs by the designed methodology. At the end, by comparing the similarity of surahs to each other versus their order distance in Quran and their revelation time distance, we realized that the whole Quran is also relatively organized in terms of surah' ordering.
۴.

The Usage of Commissive Speech Act in the Qur’an

کلید واژه ها: Discourse analysis Searle’s speech act theory commissive speech act modality the Qur’an

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 853 تعداد دانلود : 339
One of the remarkable aspects of the holy Qur’an is the use of diverse linguistic methods to convey a particular idea. This study aims to evaluate the commissive act in the Qur’an using Searle's speech act theory, a theory useful in comprehending deeper semantic levels of holy scriptures. The study used a descriptive-analytical method, and the data were analyzed through a qualitative analysis of statistical results to answer the following questions: What linguistic forms does the Qur’an use to represent commissive speech acts? And what themes or topics are included in these commissive speech acts' utterances? First, employing a desk research approach, the Qur’anic verses containing the commissive speech acts were selected based on syntactic, lexical, and semantic criteria. The distinguishing characteristics of each case were then identified, including the discursive structure of the act, the committed person, and the theme of the commitment. Finally, the relationship between the linguistic form and the theme of the speech acts was examined. The findings reveal that the Qur’an expresses commissive speech acts through four linguistic structures: oath, promise (al-wa‘d), threat (al-wa‘īd), and pledge; each includes divine and non-divine conceptions, and each has a unique characteristic. The quantitative comparison of these four shows that “promise” is the most commonly cited sub-speech act, distinguishing it from other linguistic forms. “Threat”, “oath”, and “pledge” are the other most frequently cited sub-speech acts. Moreover, the evaluation of the speech agents and their status as aspects of the situational context reveals that the speech participants are not equal in terms of position and power, which is a decisive factor in the selection of linguistic forms. In all of these cases, the language structures and their intricacies, particularly modality (modal marking), illustrate the relationship between the linguistics style and power dynamics between the participants. The focus of the themes, domain, and frequency differ throughout the four categories mentioned above, with some overlap in certain instances.
۵.

Prophetic Miracles from the Supernatural to Natural Events: Between Modernist and Ahmadiyya Interpretations

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Interpretation of miracles modernist Muslims Naturalists

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 530 تعداد دانلود : 877
This article examines the beliefs of modern Muslims regarding miracles and supernatural claims. It looks at how modern Muslims have had to interpret most of the miracles mentioned in the Qur’an metaphorically or naturally in order to avoid accusations of error. It also examines the views of Muhammad Asad, who argued that the stories of miracles adopted traditional myths as a site for teaching morals. The article further explores the interpretations of naturalists, who interpret miracles in ways that do not contradict empirical observations of naturalism. Finally, it examines the influence of European and Christian ideas on modernist Muslims, and the silence of modernist commentators on the similarity in their ideas with some Christians who wrote a few generations before them. The conclusion is that modern Muslims have had to interpret miracles in ways that do not contradict empirical observations of naturalism, and that there is no tangible evidence that modernist Muslims have been influenced by the ideas of Europeans or earlier Christians.
۶.

An Explanation for Omitting and Writing Alif in Some Words of the Qurʼan Based on the Ancient Manuscripts

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: orthography of the Qur’an rasm al-Qur’an omitting alif manuscripts of the Qur’an

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 75 تعداد دانلود : 336
Examining the orthography of the Qurʼan shows that the letter alif was omitted in some words, while it was not omitted in similar words. Scholars have offered various reasons for eliminating alif since the early centuries. Some of them regarded the way of writing the Qurʼan as sacred or proposed ideological explanations for it. However studying these justifications shows that they are not subject to scientific linguistic rules and are mostly personal opinions. Because based on the ancient manuscripts of the Qurʼan, we can find many contradictions for the proposed reasons, which shows that they are not general and true in many cases. Using the reasons presented in the books of Qurʼanic sciences and some interpretations of the Qurʼan and comparing them with the orthography in the manuscripts, this study shows that the orthography of the Qurʼan, especially in the case of writing alif, is a linguistic and scribal phenomenon subjected by some factors that developed the Arabic script in its early stages.
۷.

Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr and Epistemic Decolonisation: al-Tafsīr al-Mawḍūʿī, the Islamic Alternative in Iqtiṣādunā and the Struggle for Cultural Hegemony

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr Epistemic Decolonisation al-tafsīr al-mawḍūʿī

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 634 تعداد دانلود : 844
The Lebanese scholar Chibli Mallat, analysing Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr’s work, affirms that the Iraqi intellectual proposed a completely new comprehensive theory of the Islamic State, focusing on constitutionalism and economics. Following Mallat’s intuition, this paper will focus on the second aspect of al-Ṣadr’s work. It will deal with the use of thematic Quranic exegesis (al- tafsīr al-mawḍūʿī ) in al-Ṣadr’s main work on economics, Iqtiṣādunā. The article will argue that al-Ṣadr’s use of this kind of exegesis is determined by his will to provide a comprehensive understanding of the Islamic vision of economics as a central part of a new Islamic society. Furthermore, the paper will argue that in al-Ṣadr’s work, this new conception of Islamic society is also voted to propose a valid alternative to capitalism and Marxism, both as economic systems and conceptions of society, fighting Western cultural influences and Epistemic colonisation. Henceforth, the article will frame al-Ṣadr’s effort to build a comprehensive critique of Western Epistemic colonisation within the concept of Cultural Hegemony and Counter-hegemony as defined by Asef Bayat and Antonio Gramsci and analyse his endeavours within this framework. To highlight these points, the presentation will provide an overview of the use of al-tafsīr al-mawḍūʿī in a short selection of passages from Iqtiṣādunā, drawing on the methodological framework provided by Gramsci, Bayat, and other scholars.
۸.

Qur’anic Identity Building: A Discourse Analysis of Asmā’ al-Qur’an

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: asmā’ al-Qur’an tartīb al-nuzūl Power Arabic language

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 893 تعداد دانلود : 150
This paper seeks to explains the way in which the Qur’ān historically established its identity through its use of asmā’ al-Qur’ān ( al-qur’ān, al-kitāb, al-furqān, and al-dhikr ). In doing so, it combines the analysis of the literary feature and the historical chronology of every single use of asmā’ al-qur’ān terminologies during its formative period. This analysis requires the use of al-tartīb al-nuzūl approach—that of al-Jābiri—integrated with discourse analysis to understand the process of identity building of the Qur’an. According to this study, the Qur’ān language was the tool through which the Qur’ān distributed its power, both explicitly and implicitly. The implicit mechanism manifesting itself as the Qur’ān’s positional play between the traditional shi‘r and earlier scripture in order to influence the Quraish’s psychological state. The explicit mechanism is that it clearly declares itself to be the Arabic scripture ( Qur’ānan arabiyya ). Asmā’ al-Qur’ān plays an important role in both strategies. There would be no better way to gain influence for the Arab community, which valued language and had a strong emotional attachment to it. Even though few believed in it, the identity of the Qur’an had been successfully established through both strategies in its first seven years.
۹.

Water Breakdown during Photosynthesis and Transpiration in Plants as a Scientific Miracle in the Qur’an

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Hashīm The verse 45 of Surah al-Kahf Water photolysis Photosynthesis Transpiration

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 162 تعداد دانلود : 181
This current study is an attempt for some scientific insights about the verse 45 of Surah Al-kahf. In this verse, God said, “And present to them the example of the life of this world, like water which we send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it and [then] it becomes broken, scattered by the winds”. In common interpretations, the pronoun in the statement “it becomes broken, scattered by the wind” has been directed to plants not to water. However, in my new approach to interpreting this verse, the pronoun will refer to water, not plants, which is also linguistically acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to show that, despite the common interpretation of this verse, an alternative interpretation can be provided that is both linguistically and scientifically plausible. The results show that based on this new interpretation, it can be said that in this verse, the comparison of the scenario of life in relation to humans to the scenario of water in relation to plants is in good harmony with scientific findings about what happens for water in the plant. When water enters the plant, it can go through two pathways; transpiration or photosynthesis, in both of which a type of breakdown occurs for water. In the first pathway, i.e. transpiration, hydrogen bonds of water molecules are broken so that water is transformed from liquid to gas. In the second pathway, i.e. photosynthesis, the water molecules are broken into oxygen, protons and electrons. The products resulted (water vapor and oxygen) are scattered by external winds. Protons and electrons contribute to the electrochemical potential driving ATP and NADPH formation, or in another words, they are scattered by internal wind. Therefore, it can be said that referring to the phenomena of water breakdown in the plants and then its dispersion, in the verse, is an accurate expression that is also confirmed by science.
۱۰.

Providing a Model for Evaluating the Dependency of Comprehension of Qur'an Verses on Cultural Studies

کلید واژه ها: Comprehension of the Qur’an method of interpretation culture of revelation time cultural study cultural translation model of assessment

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 258 تعداد دانلود : 695
Some religious modernists believe that correct and scientific comprehension of the Qur’an is merely provided through historical and cultural study of the context of revelation time. Others, on the other hand, advocate that knowing interior and connected evidence suffices for Qur’an comprehension. Further, they say that exterior and unconnected evidence such as cultural and historical studies can have little effect on Qur’an comprehension. These various attitudes made us research them and represent a model to assess the dependency of Qur’an comprehension on cultural and historical conditions of revelation time. The present study examined works of scholars in this field such as Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, Khorramshahi, and Tabatabaei through a descriptive and analytical method. Then, a model was recommended to evaluate the dependence of understanding of the Qur’an on the cultural and historical conditions of revelation time. The model includes four components: cause of revelation; vocabulary; subject matter; expressions which encompass twelve rules based on the features of verses in each component. Input of the model is one verse and its output is a dependent, independent, or semi-dependent mode.
۱۱.

Scientific explanation of mountains movement on verse 88 of Surah al-Naml from the Noble Qur'an

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Mountains Clouds Similarity of motion

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 830 تعداد دانلود : 879
Verse 88 of Surah al-Naml has likened mountains to moving clouds. Although in the previous centuries, most exegetes considered the movement of mountains as one of the pre-resurrection events, new scientific findings in geology and meteorology have brought new aspects of this similarity to scholars. this study aims to present a new understanding about verse 88 of Surah al-Namal and identify the similarities between the movement of mountains and clouds, according to the reference scientific texts in geology and meteorology. The results showed that the similarity of mountains to clouds, in addition to the direction and speed of movement previously specified, is in the mechanism of motion, layers and constituents. Earlier, many exegetes considered the movement of the mountains to be related to the resurrection and did not see it as compatible with the current conditions of the mountains but today, scientific findings show that the movement of mountains in several aspects is like clouds: 1. Mountain movements are influenced by the movement of earth's twenty plates, in different directions including orbital, meridian, combination of the two and ascending. Clouds also show all four side of movement in the atmosphere. 2. The movement of mountains is slow and at a speed of several millimeters or a few centimeters per year, and the movement of clouds is also slow in the sky. 3. The mountains move on the edge of the plates in an upward motion on the edge of the opposite plate, and this phenomenon can be seen in the front clouds of the warm air mass, i.e. the cold air mass creeps upwards at the front. 4. The mountains continue to evolve even as they move with tectonics forces from below and erosion forces from above. Clouds also evolve from above while moving, by converging currents from below and diverging from above.

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