Human Resource Development (HRD) at work is now a prominent and central of Human Resource Management (HRM). This course is designed to provide a complete, integrated introduction to the process, practices and perspectives of the important area of people management. The process of HRD at work is an interparty of the overall performance management of organizations. Selected, repressive and prominent practices in HRD at work are explored, using case studies to illustrate what this process involves in practice. Finally, contemporary perspectives that should illuminate concerns, concepts, arguments and evidence are explore course is thus an ‘all in one’ view of processes, practices and perspectives. There are powerful forces in many organizations that cause widespread withholding of information about potential problems or issues by employees named as organizational silence. The base of our model factors are from Morrison & Milliken. They know organizational silence as a “collective” phenomenon and these factors have been organized under levels of analysis (1) Top management team characteristics, (2) Organizational and environmental characteristics, (3) Affecting employee interaction, (4) Managerial belief, (5) Organizational structures and policies, (6) Managements’ fear of negative feedback and (7) Demographic dissimilarity.
Negative relation between unemployment and inflation is known as the Philips model, which states, when inflation is high, unemployment gently decries and when unemployment is low, salaries will increase rapidly. While economic planners of the country tend to impart this situation highly, it would fall down, because frequent increase of inflation with the hope of keeping unemployment low permanently, ultimately will cause rise in expected inflation of organizations and lead to change in their recruitment decisions. In a section of this model, it has also analyzed, relation between income, investment, and consumption. Regular Philips model with derivative deals with first and second level of calculations, however this model has faced many weaknesses and deficiencies in economic cycle of Iran. Regarding its implementation in the economy of Iran, in this research, through substitution of Caputo fractional-order derivatives, we reach out “Philips model of Fractional-order”. Moreover, by numerical calculation of resulted equations and using Maple software, we over reach to Philips curve of Fractional-order in multiple various orders. According to achieved results, this model highly depends on derivation orders and different outcomes will be acquired through various derivation orders. Acquired model in the economy of Iran (situational format in Sugar and Sugar cube Industries) has been studied through phasic technic which proves meaningfulness of relations between variables of the model.
One of the major challenges faced by major firms is the risk of financial instability and ultimately financial bankruptcy. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to predict bankruptcy based on real Earning management models and the accrual Earning management of companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange. The research method is descriptive-applied and is a correlation study. The time domain of research was between 1382 and 1395, with a sample of 110 companies (65 bankrupt and 65 non-bankrupt companies) selected from the list of companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange. Logistic regression model was used to test the research hypotheses. In general, the findings of the research hypothesis test show that the predictive power of bankruptcy models based on real profit management models and accruals management of companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange is significant. Therefore, it can be stated that the amount of real earning management and accrual earnings management affect the bankruptcy of the investigated companies.
This paper investigates the variability of real business activities in the form of discretionary expenditures (accounts receivable, selling, general and administrative expenses, and net change in accruals), and the firm’s stock price performance concerning the frequency of meeting or beating analysts’ earnings forecast. Also, the study investigated the relationship between the firm’s stock price performance and the variability of these financial statement accounts. The objective was to examine if these selected financial statements of accounts could be used by management to manipulate earnings in order to meet and/or beat analysts’ earnings forecasts so as to enhance the firm’s stock performance. The study found that there is a significant difference between the variance of SG&A, NCA and stock returns of the firms that meet and/or beat the analysts’ forecast and those that do not. It was also found that there is a significant difference in stock returns based on meeting and/ or beating the analysts’ estimate.