مطالعات کاربردی زبان - Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies

مطالعات کاربردی زبان - Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies

مطالعات کاربردی زبان دوره 3 سال 2011 شماره 1 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Assessing Reading Comprehension of Expository Text across Different Response Formats(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۹۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴۵
This study investigated if different response formats (test methods) measure reading comprehension of expository text differently. The study was conducted with 48 semester 6 TESL students at a university in Selangor, Malaysia. These students received an expository passage having descriptive rhetorical structure followed by three response formats, namely, incomplete outline, graphic organizer, and summary writing. Results from Repeated Measures two-way ANOVA indicated that high-achievers outperformed intermediate- and low-achievers across the three response formats. Moreover, the three groups achieved higher scores on incomplete outline and summary writing, respectively. However, graphic organizer appeared as the most difficult task as the respondents achieved the lowest score in this task.
۲.

EFL Learner’s Evaluation of Writing Tasks in Iran’s TOEFL and IELTS Preparation Courses in Light of the Process-oriented Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۳۸۳
The purpose of this research was to analyze EFL writing tasks in two of the most popular English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) exam preparation courses in Iran, namely IELTS and TOEFL. Having collected the criteria of writing task appropriateness in light of the process-oriented approach to writing instruction, we asked 60 learner participants to rate EFL writing tasks in 3 IELTS and 3 TOEFL preparation classes based on a checklist previously gathered and validated. The findings produced significant differences in terms of several features of writing task appropriateness. An observation process was conducted of the actual task performance in the target classes to explain the significant differences between the two groups. A two-sample t-test was later employed to evaluate the differences between the mean scores of ratings in the two groups while the p-level was set at .05.
۳.

Alternative Assessment Procedures in Iranian EFL Writing Classes: The Washback Effect and Learners’ Attitudes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۹۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۷
This study aimed to investigate the washback effect of three alternative assessment procedures, namely oral-conferences, portfolios, and corpora-based feedback on the writing achievement and attitudes of Iranian EFL university learners. The participants taking part in the study were 156 native Iranian students in a mixed Reading-Writing course. Through the two three-month semesters, the learners were studied in terms of three experimental and one control groups. It should be mentioned that revision was a major component of the pedagogy and learners were asked to incorporate feedback into their revision processes. The findings revealed that the aforementioned assessment procedures led to a significantly better performance of the participants and created a considerable change in their attitudes.
۴.

Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۸۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳۷
In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince and Smolensky, 1993/2003). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We found out that vowel insertion, vowel prothesis, no palatalized consonants are the phonological processes occur on Russian loanwords in Persian.
۵.

Word Type Effects on L2 Word Retrieval and Learning: Homonym versus Synonym Vocabulary Instruction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۵۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۸۹
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to assess the retention of two word types (synonyms and homonyms) in the short term memory, and (b) to investigate the effect of these word types on word learning by asking learners to learn their Persian meanings. A total of 73 Iranian language learners studying English translation participated in the study. For the first purpose, 36 freshmen from an intact class were presented with two lists of words with their Persian meanings. One of the list included 5 pairs of synonyms and the other one included 5 pairs of homonyms. They were asked to retain as much vocabulary items as they can. Learning was measured by lexical representations of the words. The results showed that learners did better on the retention of homonyms than synonyms. For the second purpose, 37 sophomores from an intact class were provided with 40 words in pairs (20 synonyms and 20 homonyms). They were asked to write their Persian meanings in the testing session. The results indicated that students did better on learning synonyms than homonyms. The study revealed that homonyms are better retrieved in short term memory but learned more slowly regarding to the semantic representation.
۶.

The Primacy of Teacher Imperative Commentaries in the Improvement of Iranian English Majors’ Writing Ability(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰۷
In this study, the researchers investigated a critical aspect of EFL/ESL writing pedagogy-the impact of teacher written commentary on student writer’s earlier drafts. Compositions of 80 Iranian undergraduate English majors were commented on using a trio of imperatives, statements, and questions on both content and form. Overall, the results indicated that the comments in the imperative form helped students improve their EFL/ESL writing ability more than the other two types. However, the difference between statements and questions was found not to be significant. The findings of this study, once again, emphasized the need for EFL/ESL writing instructors to communicate to learners with appropriate types of written comments. Moreover, employing imperative sentences can orient student writers towards a more accurate (i.e. form-focused) and appropriate (i.e. content-focused) composition writing.
۷.

Stress Pattern System in Central Sarawani Balochi(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۴۱
The present article investigates the stress pattern system of Central Sarawani Balochi (CSB), spoken in Sarawan located in Sistan and Baluchestan province of the Islamic Republic of Iran, based on metrical theory as developed in Hayes (1995). Correspondingly, the present research illustrates the position of primary and secondary stress in mono-morphemic words, verbal paradigms, compound words, complex words, pair words and simple transitive as well as intransitive sentences. The linguistic data are mostly based on the purposeful recording of speech gathered through interview and elicitation from the speech of 10 male and female language consultants with different social backgrounds. CSB data highlight that the stress pattern system in this language variety is almost totally systematic; it is a language variety with iambic feet. Further, CSB data show up that stress is culminative at phonological level. It is also rhythmically distributed. The absence of stress assimilation is supported by CSB data as well. Since the location of stress is predictable, its stress pattern is fixed. The data, likewise, confirm that stress system in CSB is a mixture of morphological and rhythmic. Meanwhile, stress pattern in complex words indicate the suffixes attract the primary stress. Besides, in negative and prohibitive forms, prefixes m- and n- get the primary stress.
۸.

Iranians’ Belief about Language Learning: The Role of Sex and Language Proficiency(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۴۷۷
The purpose of this study was to see the role of English language proficiency level and sex on Iranian students’ beliefs about language learning. This study also investigated the usefulness of the BALLI questionnaire (Horwits, 1988), which checks learners’ beliefs, for the context of Iranian English language learners through conducting an interview. A total of 171 Iranian learners from safir institute took a TOEFL test (2003) and filled out BALLI questionnaire. Based on their TOEFL scores, they were divided into two levels of high and low language proficiency and each group was divided into two groups of males and females. Thirty-two participants including all groups were randomly selected for the interview. The results of the data analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the learners’ beliefs about language learning at different language proficiency levels, but there was no significant difference in this regard between males and females. Also, the study did not prove any interaction between the two factors of sex and language proficiency level. The difference in the results of the interview and the questionnaire in three questions reveal that the questionnaire, though useful, is better to be used along with other measuring instruments.

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