Climate change is significantly affecting the livelihoods and health of human societies. During the Holocene, climatic events have occurred repeatedly. These events typically have affected large regions between 100 and 600 years. Paleoclimate studies of the Northern Hemisphere have identified climatic events of 9.2, 8.2, 5.2, 4.2, 3.2 ka BP, Roman warming, the early medieval cooling, medieval warming, and Little Ice Age. Also, by adapting the archaeological studies and the paleoclimate research of Iran, other periods of climate change such as 7.5, 7, 6.2 and 4.8 ka BP can be introduced. Due to the vastness and geographical diversity of Iran, the impact of each of these events in different parts of the country has been different, but, in general, during droughts related to climate change, semi-arid to arid regions of Iran have been more vulnerable, and therefore, people were using a variety of strategies to resilience and adapt, such as changing subsistence patterns, managing water resources, and migrating. However, in some periods of climate change, the effects of climatic hazards have been such that it has led to the cultural, socio-economic and political decline of societies.